Every shotgun owner should know how to properly care for a weapon! Improper handling of firearms makes them less reliable. Lack of reliability can have negative consequences - malfunctions can manifest themselves at the very moment when you need the gun to function properly.
Pump action shotgun
- 1 Make sure you always keep your firearm safe. Always keep the barrel in a safe direction to start the action, remove your finger from the trigger.
- 2 Press the shutter release button (usually in front of or behind the shutter).
- 3 Action pump action shotgun. Repeat until there are no cartridges left in the chamber.
- Double check that your weapon is unloaded. You do not want an unexpected shot to happen while cleaning your weapon.
- 4 Keep ammunition separate from the shotgun while cleaning.
- 1 Make sure you are holding the weapon correctly. Always keep the barrel in a safe direction, look at the firearm as if it was loaded, and remove your finger from the trigger.
- 2 Pull the shutter back and release it. Repeat until there are no cartridges left in the chamber.
- Double check that your weapon is unloaded. You do not want an unexpected shot to happen while cleaning your weapon.
- 3 Keep the ammunition separate from the shotgun while cleaning.
Method 2 Cleaning the Gun
Shotgun cleaning should not be long. Unless there is a lot of sand or dirt in your shotgun, everything should work reliably. If you need to do a more thorough cleaning, or if you use an auto-shotgun, here is the necessary process: Dismantling is not required, open and close the shutter in accordance with the requirements.
- 1 Wipe all components with a paper towel (or a lint-free cloth).
- Wipe as much carbon as possible from friction. Wipe off old oil and unburned powder.
- Be sure to wipe the ejector and the area around the camera. You will find that some parts are more dirty, following the black marks on the towel (clean these parts more thoroughly).
- 2 Apply a special solvent (it is better to choose one that does not harm your skin on contact, for example, M-Pro 7) on all contaminated parts.
- Spray a sufficient amount of solvent.
- 3 Let the solvent soak for several minutes. Make sure that all parts covered with dirt or unburned gunpowder have enough solvent.
- 4 Wipe the weapon with a brush (not a metal one, such as a toothbrush). This method works fine with solvent and removes carbon deposits that accumulate on weapons. Try to wipe in all nooks and crannies.
- 5 Wipe the weapon with a lint-free cloth (you can buy chopped cloth, but a clean old shirt or socks are also suitable). Wipe wherever solvent has been applied until the gun is clean.
- 6 Wipe the entire shotgun (inside and out) with a lint-free cloth dampened in solvent over and over.
- 7 Use a ramrod to remove carbon deposits, residues of gunpowder and dirt accumulated in hard-to-reach parts of the shotgun.
- Most of all deposits you will find in the chamber. Accumulation of burning occurs at the corners of metal pieces.
- 8 Wipe the barrel with a cloth moistened with solvent. Repeat this with clean rags (solvent impregnated) until the rag stops collecting dirt. Then wipe it with a cloth soaked in oil, this will protect your barrel from rust.
- If you do not have sufficient experience in cleaning the gun, you can use a special cord to clean the barrel.
- 9 Apply oil to components that require lubrication. Usually, the instructions for the weapon indicate which parts should be lubricated with oil after cleaning.
- Be sure to apply oil to the valve.
- Try so that the oil does not get into the striker (the oil collects dirt and burnt from gunpowder, the accumulation of this burnt around the striker can jam it and prevent the weapon from firing).
- 10 Wipe the gun and remove excess oil.
Instructors know that there is no one way to properly hold a gun when firing. This is influenced by several factors:
- physiological characteristics of the hunter,
- weapon weight
- terrain landscape.
But there are basic principles. We need a fairly strong coverage of the neck of the butt and forearm. But the fingers should not be too tense and numb. The following detail is especially important: the thumb of the hand, which rests on the butt, must snugly fit its neck and in no case slide onto the fuse. Otherwise, when fired, the shooter can damage it with recoil. Especially often, the finger is injured by the upper shutter key.
How to position your hands
The hand that pulls the trigger should rest freely, nothing should constrain it. Sometimes there are guns in which the butt has a shape in which to correctly take the gun you have to wring your wrist. This reduces firing accuracy and efficiency. Professionals advise changing the shape of the front part of the butt crest or even completely replacing the gun stock. This will give the hand more space. But doing it yourself is not recommended. Such changes in design should be carried out only by a master gunsmith.
The second hand of the shooter is usually located in the middle of the forearm. It is especially important to control the grip force. Masters of shooting teach that the forearm should be held in the palm of your hand as if it were a handful of eggs. The first time such a grip may not work, but you still have to master it.
Hunting big game allows you to use a little more force while holding weapons. But the force of compression of the forearm should strive to a minimum. Of course, it should be enough for confident and clear fire control.
It is important to position the index finger correctly. Instructors advise placing it so that it is aimed at the target. At first, this position of the hand will not seem too convenient, but over time, the skill will gain a foothold and become a habit. When the index finger lies in such a way that it points to the target, it helps accuracy at the instinct level. Usually, the instructor asks the novice shooter to raise his left hand with his forefinger extended forward and outline his goal. The brush should be kept relaxed, without tension. Then the student is offered to turn his half-open palm up. This will be the optimal position of the front hand when firing.
How to distribute muscle effort
The secret here is simple. The hand that holds the forend must be advanced as far forward as possible, and at the same time the compressing butt should be pulled back. With such a grip, some tension is created, the shooter perceives recoil less quickly and again directs the barrel at the target. Masters of shooting advise one of the hands to strain less nevertheless. When hunting, the host is advised to leave the front hand. She becomes the main when aiming in the game.
Some hunters prefer to raise the gun with both hands simultaneously and simultaneously aim it at the target. So they save time for a shot.
The position and work of the hands during the shooting is largely individual. But all experts agree on one thing: it is necessary to control the compression force of the gun. If the forearm slides in the hand during the shot, then the grip should be strengthened. If your fingers turn white and become numb with tension, then you need to loosen it.
Some hunters change hands from time to time. This helps them quickly aim the gun at the target. A classic among shooters is the forearm grip in the middle. But many hold their hand closer to the box. To place it completely on the back of the forend is risky. The hand strains too much, so it is easy to smear on the target. The front part of the forearm is held only if it is too short.
How to arrange elbows and brushes
There is no consensus on this issue either. Some hunters are sure that their elbows should be raised high enough when shooting. Others believe that it is better to keep them in a natural position, and to lift the forearms slightly to the sides. Most choose the second method. Highly raised elbows help with trap shooting. They create a strong lock between the cheek and the butt. On a normal hunt, movements are shackled, and the shooter can miss even from a favorable position from a short distance.
The hands of both hands should be as comfortable as possible. This will make it easy to control weapons when choosing a target.
Tips for novice hunters
A novice hunter must develop a skill in which both hands will equally participate in throwing a gun to his shoulder. In this case, the barrel of the weapon should always be directed towards the target and not swing from side to side or up and down.
The left hand is pointing the barrel at the target. The right one at the last moment of aiming brings the gun back and presses the butt to the shoulder. This movement should only be done with the back of your hand. Then the butt of the gun is inserted into the cavity in the shoulder. This will extinguish the recoil when fired. The elbow of the right hand is raised a little up, but they do not lift it.
Beginners on the first training try to turn the right hand to the left. This is mistake. On the contrary, it is worth turning it a little to the right. This position will provide a softer grip gun and a smooth pull on the trigger.
The position of the body when shooting is also extremely important. If the body is thrown back, the hunter will not be able to cope with the recoil, and the barrel will snap up sharply. It should be ensured that the body is slightly inclined forward, and the center of gravity is transferred to the front leg.
When hunting enthusiasts choose “assault rifles”, they should remember that the balance when shooting in this case will constantly change as the cartridges are used up. The shooting line will also become higher.
The right weapon choice
Often accurate shooting is prevented by the very design of the weapon. Experienced hunters know that sometimes there are guns designed so poorly that it’s not possible to pick them up correctly at all.
It happens that the weapons were redone on their own and did it wrong. Therefore, even if all the rules of grip are observed, it seems to you that the weapon in your hands is not obedient enough, then you should contact a professional gunsmith. Only a well-fitted gun in the hands of a good shooter will bring pleasure from shooting and give a result on the hunt.
Weapons storage permit
Only those citizens who have permission to do so can keep a hunting rifle at home. You can get it by contacting the police department at the place of residence.
A citizen will have to go through the appropriate medical commission, which will exactly confirm the person’s sanity and his ability to use firearms. A hunting rifle can only be purchased with the appropriate permission. Subsequently, the purchase is recorded in the ATS.
Today, a wide selection of different models of firearms somewhat discourages novice hunters. So, there are models that are purchased without appropriate permission, and also do not require additional registrations with law enforcement agencies. These types of weapons include:
- special designs similar to weapons
- pneumatic principle revolvers
- rifles and pistols with muzzle energy no more than 3 J
- revolvers no more than 6 mm in caliber, as well as their corresponding cartridges
- other signal pistols
Despite the fact that the presented models can be purchased in specialized institutions without appropriate permission, the storage of the presented models should be carried out according to the same principles as the “full” hunting rifle.
Now we should talk about the ban as a warning to citizens. In no case do not store at home hunting rifles and other firearms that were once simply transferred or donated.
All guns must undergo appropriate registrations with an exact indication of the owner. If a firearm is found in your home that does not belong to any of the residents, as indicated by the lack of registration with the police department, the case may be referred to the court in connection with the criminal liability.
Keep the gun at home
Shotguns must be stored in accordance with the registration of their owner or upon the fact of his stay at the moment. The storage location is carefully selected. Here you should use metal safes or drawers with a reliable lock or lock.
Storage rules for the hunting rifle of the house allow the use of structures made of wood, previously studded with metal sheets. The safe or cabinet is necessarily locked only by the owner and is not used by strangers.
According to Russian law, owners must store a gun and all auxiliary items as specified in the Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia No. 288 dated April 12, 1999. Here are the following storage rules for weapons and ammunition:
- Cartridges are stored separately from the hunting rifle. Moreover, relative to the cartridges, additional sorting is carried out in the form of a separation of pyrotechnic compositions, as well as ammunition containing tear and irritating substances. Separately stored types and instances of ammunition, giving a misfire when firing.
- Separately stored various types of firearms. If possible - in accordance with the type of construction - they are disassembled and stored in a collapsible form in a case or holster.
- Separately place additional products that carry only the principle of decoration, especially if they are made of precious stones or metal.
- According to the provision for use, the powder is separately stored.
As follows from the above, all components of a hunting rifle are stored separately from each other. Even if the owner himself is not aware of the rules and features of storage, he can simply put everything in separate packages and boxes, and then put them in a safe.
About the room
If an avid hunter has a whole collection of guns, then he must pay attention to the equipment of the room for their storage.
As a rule, every collector or hunter wants to show his "property".
For this, the exhibition room should be equipped with a fire and burglar alarm.
Sometimes, due to the layout and other reasons, the installation of the equipment presented above is simply impossible.
Then the owner of the collection should take care of placing the metal box near the wall, providing the store with reliable fastening with steel bolts, which should be at least 1.6 cm in diameter and at least 2 pieces.
Such fastening of the drawer to the wall is necessary to ensure the safety of the rollover that occurs when the door is opened.
To simplify the issue of storage, you can use special built-in cabinets designed to store firearms. They are already equipped with additional locks, which you need to ensure yourself when using a simple metal box.
The very room where the guns are stored should be equipped with a high-quality door, and metal grilles are mandatory on the windows. In this matter, it does not matter on which floor the apartment is located, when it comes to a high-rise building.
Keeping weapons in a safe
As already clear from the above, weapons are stored in a metal box or safe. The rules for storing a hunting rifle in a safe indicate exactly the basics of placing and choosing the product itself.
Firstly, the safe must be equipped with a working combination lock, the code from which is known only to the owner of the gun. In the case of using a metal box, it must also have a strong lock on it.
Secondly, the safe or drawer should be out of the reach of other family members. According to the rules, parents, spouses or children do not need to know about the location of the safe and, especially, the code for opening (or the location of the keys to the lock).
The choice of safes should also be approached carefully and responsibly. Among these structures, according to the lock opening mechanism, the following varieties are distinguished:
- Mechanical - a traditional safe with a combination lock. It works upon the establishment of its own code and its subsequent introduction, if necessary.
- Key - keys should be stored only with the owner of the weapon.
- Electronic - the latest developments, whose work is based on the recognition of biometric data. Here, the owner can fix his fingerprint or retina. If he needs to open the door, he will simply “provide his body part”. Such a mechanism can rightly be attributed to the most reliable and it is recommended to use it in the case of rare and expensive models.
- Combined - a mechanism that includes two varieties at once (key and electronic). It is the most reliable lock for storing firearms.
When choosing a safe, attention should also be paid to the wall thickness, which, according to the Order, should be at least 2 mm. Представленную характеристику можно просмотреть в описании модели сейфа, что и сделают сотрудники правоохранительных органов во время проверки.
Подробнее о характеристиках сейфа
When choosing a safe, you should pay attention to the compliance of the model with the requirements - good capacity, fire resistance and burglar resistance. You should not purchase budget models such as Chinese-made. The locks do not serve in their products for a long time, and already through a couple of discoveries they are shaken, which does not provide burglar resistance.
In addition, budget products with an electronic or combined lock mechanism may periodically malfunction. Therefore, experts recommend purchasing the highest quality models, and if they do not have the appropriate money, you can use the services of making safes to order.
Safe for weapons
Now for fire resistance.
Yes, this is an important criterion when choosing, because when storing gunpowder in a safe, fire can lead to a powerful explosion.
To prevent the presented sad consequences, it is necessary to opt for models with an additional coating with a fire-resistant composition.
This should be said in the description of the model from the manufacturer, as well as confirmed by appropriate quality certificates.
Manufacturers themselves are talking about safes with a flame retardant coating with some regret.
The fact is that such models cannot provide reliable protection against hacking. As an alternative, you can opt for a hybrid, however, to pay for it will have a considerable cost.
The interior of the safe
When choosing a safe, be sure to pay attention to its internal structure. Departments for the storage of weapons and ammunition should be provided here. In departments, clamps or clamps are required to ensure a secure fit. As a result, the hunting rifle must be fixed.
Pay attention to the material used to make the clips and fasteners. Here, plastic, wood or steel is permitted. A safe bottom should be mounted at the safe, which is also sheathed with wood, felt or plastic. In the resulting depression will further be located the butt of a hunting rifle.
On the door inside the safe there should be additional pockets and hooks for storing accessories. Such products primarily include the necessary tools and tools for cleaning weapons.
Models of safes are diverse. There are all kinds of partitions and recesses for storing cartridges, gunpowder and other items. Choose the internal design of the safe, taking into account your model of weapons and the amount of ammunition.
Proper placement of the safe
It was already said above that the safe should be in a visible reach from other family members. But when choosing such a secluded place you should also be guided by the rules. So, safes or metal boxes with weapons place:
- no closer than 1.5 meters from the front door
- no closer than 50 cm from the window
These are the two main criteria for placing a safe with a weapon. But since the guns are stored with cartridges, you should ensure that the safe is at least a meter away from the radiators. For convenience and in accordance with the rules, the doors of the safe must not rest against furniture in the open state.
The safe is always hidden from human eyes with the usual disguise. So, in most cases, metal boxes are placed in cabinets for linen. Modern cabinet designs provide the opportunity to use a corner cabinet model where the safe itself is attached to the wall behind the wall of furniture.
If this kind of disguise does not work, you can use the bathroom, where the safe is located under the sink and disguised as a cabinet for household chemicals. In this case, it should be noted that the rest of the household should not know about the location of the box.
It is convenient to use the built-in safes in the wall, which are further disguised as paintings or photographs.
About storage validation
It is necessary to give the sequence of acquisition and registration of a hunting rifle, which distinguishes the following actions from a hunting enthusiast:
To begin with, a person should contact the police department and tell about his desire to purchase a hunting rifle. You must obtain the appropriate forms for passing the commission.
Now you can go to the clinic at the place of residence for all the specialists indicated in the form. Be sure to pass a narcologist and a psychiatrist who issue certificates about the lack of registration earlier.
After passing all the experts, they again turn to the Department of Internal Affairs to obtain the appropriate permit. Here, you will need to pay a state fee in accordance with the type of form.
Having received permission, you can contact a specialized store that sells some models of guns only by providing storage permits issued by ATS.
After the acquisition, they again contact the ATS to register the gun.
A safe or metal box with a suitable and secure lock should be prepared in advance. After the purchase, the gun and cartridges are placed in a safe for storage and removed from there only in connection with the need.
It is important to remember that now the owner can come and check the police officers. Here, employees should check the safety and location of the safe or box, its characteristics and burglar resistance.
It should be noted that employees can also come to check during the absence of the owner of the hunting rifle. At the sight of the absence of a hunter, law enforcement officers check the awareness of the preservation of firearms of other family members.
They can ask for documents to verify the number of weapons, for which it will be necessary to open the safe. If the parent, spouse or child provides the employees with the keys to the safe or opens it themselves, the employees seize weapons based on the Order. The violator himself is brought to justice - he faces an administrative fine.
Owning a weapon is not only the responsibility for safety in accordance with the current law, but also the full provision of security for all family members, provided that the gun is placed in the house. Before purchasing a personal hunting rifle, consider all the factors.
You can learn about whether to screw the safe to the wall from the video: