Useful Tips

Pavel Frantsuzov: how to become a successful scientist


  • Firstly, this is an in-depth study of the subject of interest,
  • secondly - participation in various subject competitions, olympiads (school, city, regional and so on),
  • and thirdly, the opportunity to engage in scientific work already from high school.

It is important to take the first scientific steps already at school. In high school, the best students can be enrolled in the Small Academy of Sciences. This is the first step that will help the student test himself as a real scientist, researcher. The result of training here will be the defense of his first scientific work. And for the winners of the competition of scientific works - the opportunity to enter the university on preferential rights.
A real scientist should have a broad outlook, read a large number of books. Of course, "on the subject" literature is especially important. However, one should not just read a lot, but as they say, “let it all through you”, having learned all the subtleties of the information presented.
Practical work is also needed in laboratories (first at school, then at the university) in the chosen direction.

  • Be curious. A true scientist is always meticulous in details regarding the search for truth. He is interested in everything.
  • Check and doubt. A true scientist never blindly believes any information, especially if it seems unreliable to him. Always check everything yourself - an important quality for a scientist.
  • Do not stop on the path of knowledge. Constant self-education, the search for new information, interest in the latest in science and technology is what the scientist is constantly engaged in.
  • Open up additional opportunities. The development of other activities, the acquisition of new knowledge and skills will be useful to the scientist. To do this, you can get additional higher education or finish any special courses.
  • To learn foreign languages. Knowledge of many languages ​​is an advantage that will allow to draw information not only from domestic scientific sources. In other countries, interesting research is often conducted with meaningful results.
  • After school, the future scientist must go to a decent university and successfully graduate from it. There, under the guidance of experienced teachers, already held scientists, you can find out all the subtleties and details in the chosen field of knowledge. It is important to note that it is in the university that great opportunities open up for the manifestation of their scientific individuality, for conducting independent scientific work.
  • At a university, it is necessary to strive to take part in the work of scientific circles, prepare scientific papers, and participate in scientific competitions. It is also advisable to host student scientific conferences held at the university. So you can get an idea of ​​the most relevant areas of research in this area.
  • The best students take part first in university, and then in larger (nationwide) Olympiads in the chosen specialty. Winners have a green road to student science.
    Adult science

How to become a scientist physicist, chemist or mathematician

Each of the fields of science is exciting in its own way, but it depends on each individual’s preferences and inclinations.

  • For example, to become a physicist, you need to be well versed in the properties of materials, the mechanics of their motion, the characteristics of the interaction and be able to explain all this from the point of view of the laws of physics - down to the smallest level, that is, to elementary particles.
  • To become a chemical scientist you need to have an in-depth understanding of chemical elements, the structure of atoms and molecules, and reactions that occur between different substances.
  • To become a real mathematician, you need to love numbers and various calculations so that you can even see them in a dream.

I am a child of Akademgorodok

Akademgorodok is a very important moment in my formation. My parents, young scientists, came here from St. Petersburg in 1966. By that time, the whole country already knew the Novosibirsk Academgorodok; it had become a place of attraction for young enthusiasts who wanted to develop domestic science. And the conditions for this development have been created the most favorable. The town was saturated with a special active atmosphere: the windows in scientific institutes burned even in the late evenings - people did not go home after work, seminars, creative meetings, discussions and scientific disputes were held everywhere and almost daily. This communication flowed smoothly into the home kitchens, continued in joint campaigns and sports, in general, the creative thought did not freeze for a minute. And we, the children, lived this unique time next to our young parents and, of course, were saturated with that spirit and those ideals. By the way, all over the world only very few campuses managed to get closer to the level of organization in Novosibirsk. When I told foreigners that while living in a small town, I went to kindergarten, school, studied at university and graduate school, defended my dissertation and worked at three different scientific institutes, and all these places were no further than a 15-minute walk from of my house, people just couldn't believe it!

These two components of the school years - powerful teachers and communication of classmates deeply interested in some topic - gave motivation to move on.

From the first to the third grade, they scolded me for having a bad handwriting, and mathematics also seemed boring to me. And in the fourth grade there was an explosion: an excellent mathematics teacher came to us, who told us so enthusiastically about her subject that I loved mathematics with all my heart. Throughout the fourth grade I read daddy books on mathematics and physics, even tried to enter the correspondence school of physics and technology - I solved problems for the 7th grade. Naturally, no one took me there. However, after a few years, I still changed my first school to the math class of school number 130, now the legendary 130th. What can I say about that time. Recently, we celebrated the birthday of one of my classmates and raised a toast to the matclass. Because for each of us these are unforgettable years and unforgettable people with whom we communicated. What wonderful teachers there were! My favorite teacher is Samuel Isaakovich Literat, a physicist, a man of tremendous power. He not only excellently taught the subject - he lived with them, lived with us in every lesson. Each topic was twisted in the form of a detective story, it turned out very cool. These two components of the school years - powerful teachers and communication of classmates deeply interested in a certain topic - gave motivation to move on, prepared our further development.

Student demonstration, Akademgorodok, 60s.

I want to be a physicist

In the 8th grade, I clearly realized that I wanted to be a physicist, and all other subjects went along the side. At some point I had a unit in history, terrible problems with chemistry, but I stubbornly discarded all that was unnecessary. By the way, I then believed that English was also not needed. For me, there were only physics, computer science and mathematics. But when I entered the physics department at NSU, I passed almost all exams at 5, even the essay. The first two years of study at the university, I was an excellent pupil, I really liked it. The circumstances were such that I spent half of the third year in hospitals, and after that I was no longer an excellent student, but I did not lose interest in the subject. My first practice was held at the Institute of Nuclear Physics under the guidance of Joseph Bentsionovich Khriplovich, a legendary teacher at NSU, a brilliant theoretical physicist who has many wonderful scientific results. I will give only one example. In 1969, he published a pioneering article in which he theoretically predicted a phenomenon that was later called asymptomatic freedom in strong interactions.

As it sometimes happens in science, it was not he who received the Nobel Prize for this discovery, but the American physicists Gross, Politzer and Wilczek, whose first article was published 4 years later.

Joseph Bentsionovich set me the first scientific task of calculating the effects of non-conservation of parity in atomic phenomena, based on which an article was subsequently written.

After graduating from the university in 1987, I decided to change the direction of my research and moved to the Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion with Anatoly Burshtein. Before me was set the task of calculating the rates of chemical reactions, which required the development of a theoretical description that simultaneously included the language of quantum and classical mechanics. It was a very interesting and fruitful time. I joined the team of the Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, where a creative atmosphere reigned. Laboratory staff conducted research in various fields of theoretical chemical physics. Every week they gathered for a theoretical seminar, which often boiled serious passions. The speaker could be asked questions at any time, and the report usually turned into a fierce scientific debate. By 1993, when I was defending my dissertation, the situation was already completely different. Many prominent researchers left Russia, fleeing from economic turmoil. Both of my leaders were no longer in the country. There were no prospects of getting a permanent job at scientific institutes. Scientific seminars stopped, there was a lull. At some point, scientific activity in the Academgorodok almost stopped.

Israel, Weizmann Institute. Germany, University of Heidelberg

Now I think that in fact this time helped me, since I was left to my own devices and clearly decided that I would not go into trade and business, and let everything crash, but I would do what I like - fundamental science. For several years I pondered the questions that interested me, learned to set myself research tasks. This turned out to be a very important part of my development as a scientist. At that time, Burstein had already become a professor at the Weizmann Institute in Israel, and he suggested that I apply for a postdoctoral researcher scholarship, in the Western university system this is a temporary position for researchers with a degree. I received a scholarship, and in 1995 I went on the road with my wife and son. At that moment, I could not imagine that this trip to world scientific centers would drag on for 15 years.

Israel is my first foreign country, therefore my favorite. I began to work at the Weizmann Institute, an upscale scientific and educational institution. It is worth noting that the institute has strong scientific and financial ties with the United States, and the working language is English. It was here that I had to deal with my English. To learn it, I went to lectures in physics.

then I realized that the only way to work in world science is to write articles in English, that is, not to translate from Russian, but to write immediately in English.

Two years later, I was already fluent in English. This helped me in parallel with my work in Israel to participate in a joint project with the University of Heidelberg in Germany. Generally speaking, the cycle of scientists in science is a completely natural situation. The specifics of the work of a modern scientist is to travel around the world for his task, to different scientific centers, communicating with different people and different cultures. I stayed in Israel for two years - this was the period of the scholarship. Now I understand that going abroad already established scientists is not the best way to integrate into the Western scientific system. It’s optimal to go to study at the magistracy or at graduate school, abroad they are almost merged together. And this is correct: for 2 years of master's program plus 4-5 years of graduate school (in the USA, for example, graduate school does not have a clear time limit) the student has the opportunity to conduct a full cycle of research work. Going to study in undergraduate studies is expensive and inefficient. And undergraduates in most of the natural sciences and engineering specialties receive a scholarship that not only covers the cost of training, but also provides a modest but adequate standard of living for a young man.

To enter a master's program at a high-class university is not a very big problem if you graduated from a good university in Russia.

The main thing is English. Americans do not really like to do science and engineering, therefore, these specialties already account for more than 50% of undergraduates from other countries.

Reason 1: freedom to choose your research direction

The most important, as well as the most attractive component of a scientist’s work is his own research program. In science, in contrast to working in a company with a complex (up to the “vertical”) hierarchical structure, research projects and directions, as a rule, are not dictated by senior management. On the contrary, in the scientific community, professors, deans and laboratory managers encourage independent thinking of their young scientists, rather than telling them what, when and how to do it. The freedom to direct our own research in the right direction is a great achievement, but any freedom requires initiative and sober judgment, the ability to make decisions and be responsible for their consequences.

We remind you: a rather ideal case is considered. - Ed.

Naturally, independent choice of research direction is fraught with serious risks. Suppose a “not popular” line of research is highly likely to not receive financial support from organizations that issue grants. However, practice shows that when applying for a grant, you can formulate your thoughts streamlined enough to lay your own research plans in them. In principle, scientists have even more freedom in choosing their topic than the workers of most creative professions. Artists, writers and photographers are forced to sell their work or provide any other services in order to survive. How lucky are the scientists who have the opportunity to choose projects that satisfy their intellectual and creative ambitions, and at the same time receive a monthly salary!

Perhaps the situation was exactly what happened in the USSR: it was not for nothing that the aphorism of Academician Artsimovich gained wide popularity about the fact that "science is the best way to satisfy personal curiosity at the state expense." - Ed.

Reason 2: Career Opportunities

The work of a scientist requires constant improvement of personal skills, since the range of tasks facing a researcher is constantly changing, and all these tasks are complex. Moreover, the scientist's field of activity often goes beyond purely scientific issues — administrative work, teaching, work in industry, in commissions under the government, etc. Thus, a scientist can choose many different ways to develop his career, taking into account how his interests, priorities and goals change over time.

The maximum prospects will open up for those who find the strength not to leave their main scientific activity. For example, you can be a researcher in a laboratory and teach at a university, write a book, maintain a website, or work in a managerial position at a biotechnology company. Each of these activities is both complex and interesting. They allow you to develop your interests and acquire new skills, open new horizons with which a second wind can come to the main research work.

Reason 3: participating in the great era of discovery

We live in an exciting time for biologists, when all areas of this science are rapidly developing. The study of the structure and activity of living organisms - down to the level of individual molecules and the interactions between them - is of great practical importance for human life and health. Direct participation in scientific discoveries, even if very modest, is a tremendous experience and makes it possible to understand, appreciate and enjoy what is happening in biological sciences as a whole.

An important aspect of the scientist’s work is permanent education, which consists in reading a large number of scientific articles, participating in seminars and conferences, attending lectures by prominent scientists. And this means (of course, provided that the articles are good and the lectures are interesting) that, while working, you can enjoy and be inspired by the work of others.

Figure 2. Richard Feynman - an outstanding American physicist, one of the creators of quantum electrodynamics. In 1943-1945, he was one of the developers of the atomic bomb in Los Alamos. He developed a method of integration over trajectories in quantum mechanics, as well as a method of Feynman diagrams in quantum field theory, with which you can explain the transformation of elementary particles. He proposed a parton model of the nucleon, the theory of quantized vortices. Reformer of the methods of teaching physics at a university. Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics.

Причина 4: быть частью внеполитического международного сообщества

В наши дни совершенно не важно, в каком городе или стране работает ученый. Местонахождение научной лаборатории не влияет на ее связи с мировым научным сообществом . Современные ученые живут и работают в США, Индии, Японии, Китае, Европе. And although they were all brought up in different cultural traditions, they have much in common as a result of a constant exchange of experience in science, a passion for discoveries and the search for truth. The most interesting thing is that this community of interests is based, first of all, on self-organization, and not on any official partnership.

Although it would be naive to argue that the connection between general scientific provincialism and belonging to a particular state is completely absent. - Ed.

It is difficult to overestimate the role of the profession of a scientist in the development of international cooperation. Members of national academies of sciences and international scientific communities can overcome political, religious and linguistic barriers by communicating with each other in the language of science. Scientists can be proud that the results of their work unite the world and improve the quality of life of people. In addition, the international problems of science and education bring a lot of interesting things to the personal life of scientists.

Reason 5: the wandering wind

Frequent trips around the world accompany many professions, but in most cases this is perceived more as a burden than a bonus. For example, in business circles, a business trip often means preparing to take the next sales line by storm, and places in the business class will not so much brighten up the resulting nervous exhaustion. Scientists usually travel in economy class, but then they decide where and how much to go to them. Trips to seminars and conferences are an important means of exchanging information and establishing contacts for cooperation, finding partners, etc. Such trips are also quite exciting and useful in that they give the opportunity during the seminar to personally meet with eminent scientists, learn about their research, dine with students, have a good time at dinner with colleagues and more.

Conferences and seminars also provide the opportunity to meet old friends and make new ones. During these meetings, various scientific problems, new projects, the possibility of cooperation, and fresh ideas are usually discussed. From such missions, scientists come back charged with positive energy, with luggage of new ideas for experiments or with a clear idea of ​​how to advance their research forward. And, of course, seminars or scientific conferences are often held in amazing cities and countries.

In addition, scientists have the opportunity to travel for a longer time (for example, for a year) to exchange experiences with other researchers and gain new skills. This is a tremendous opportunity to see the world and master the most modern working methods. In addition, it provides an opportunity to learn new languages, get to know the culture of different countries and peoples.

Reason 6: shoulder to shoulder

Figure 3. Brian Green graduated from Harvard University, and defended his thesis at Oxford. In 1990, he began working at the Physics Department of Cornell University. Since 1996 - Professor of Physics and Mathematics at Columbia University. Green has lectured in more than twenty countries, speaking both to specialists and to a wide audience. His name is widely known for a number of fundamental discoveries in the theory of superstrings.

In the minds of many people, such a stereotype of a scientist has developed - this is a person who conducts obscure experiments, being deeply thoughtful under the canopy of shelving with test tubes in a dusty laboratory. However, in this view, much is not entirely true! First of all, today scientists rarely use traditional glass test tubes. But more importantly, scientific activity contains a powerful social factor. Work in a good research laboratory is not only productive in the sense of science, but also gives the feeling of a second family. This is a joint dinner, and coffee breaks, and birthday parties, and parties, and picnics with walks. It is during such informal meetings that the most interesting ideas are often born.

Work in the laboratory helps to establish friendships, and the lack of a rigid hierarchy, characteristic of the scientific community, only stimulates this process. Scientific work gives a feeling of eternal youth, since research is mainly done by young people: students, graduate students, young scientists. And professors act as venerable consultants, teachers, mentors, and often learn the latest scientific news from their subordinates.

According to first-hand information, in many Russian research institutes the age structure is somewhat different from that described. - Ed.

Reason 7: Flexible Schedule

Scientists are largely freed from tough work schedules. Coming to the laboratory is not dictated, for example, by the opening of the stock market. Also, at any convenient time, you can take a break for lunch, and not have lunch at strictly allotted hours for this. Thus, you can plan your working day, week, month on your own. As for the workplace - often a cafe or even a beach is a more favorable place to work on a manuscript than an office, where you constantly need to be distracted by something.

However, it is important to understand what a flexible schedule really is: this does not mean that you can work a little and rarely come to the laboratory. It’s just the opposite. Due to the fact that scientific work requires unlimited time, scientists are often workaholics, not lazy people. They work in the morning, and in the evenings, and on weekends. If the scientist says: “I'll be home in 30 minutes”, this usually means that you should wait for it in an hour, or even later. But the advantage of such a schedule is that you can decide for yourself a convenient time to relax or to perform the necessary family affairs. This is your time, and you manage it yourself as long as you deserve this flexibility, being responsible and productive in your research.

By the way, a free work style also implies a free style in clothes. Which also can not but rejoice.

Reason 8: sow the rational, the good, the eternal

The work of scientists, as a rule, is focused on problems that they consider interesting, although there is often a share of cunning in this. In some cases, research or new technologies can be immediately introduced as a new drug or device. However, even if this goal is not achieved, conscientiously obtained scientific knowledge deepens the understanding of the world in which we live, and this will certainly bear fruit in the future. Pure knowledge or a way to put it into practice is what the scientist can be proud of. Teaching your knowledge and mentoring is also an important contribution to the development of society. Each scientist can make his own contribution - for example, giving lectures to schoolchildren and students, teaching at the university, speaking to the general public.

Reason 9: be healthy, schoolboy!

Most universities and research institutes are based on the principles of "schooling." Being an integral part of a scientist’s work, learning new things, writing scientific papers, teaching and mentoring will not let you relax and stop absorbing new things. And if in essence you are forever young and full of thirst for knowledge, like a student, then to have such a job is an invaluable advantage and the opportunity to bring to life the classic "live, learn and learn."

Scientists are endowed with the trust of an enlightened society, which makes this scholarship possible, realizing that only “professional scholarship” is able to say a new word in industry and the social way of life. Researcher's duty is to justify this trust and work hard for the benefit of all mankind.

The editors refrain from stinging comments about these high aspirations. - Ed.

Summarizing all of the above, we can conclude that it is very important to love your work for real. After all, not everyone can sincerely say: "Yes, I love my job". Many people in different professions just perform their duties day after day and look forward to retirement. But it is so important that the work brings true pleasure - the same as a vacation with the family, walks with children, trips to restaurants and the theater. All this makes life beautiful and amazing - one that you want to enjoy, and not wait for retirement.

Adapted translation of an essay by Ronald Weil.

How to determine if you have talent

Remember that it is important to become a good scientist, and not just a specialist with in-depth knowledge. Since everyone can study information, you should be able to research it and come to new discoveries in the world of science.

To become a young scientist, listen to yourself. You must understand which area of ​​science is most attractive to you. If you love mathematics, do not look for yourself in biology, because, in addition to damaged nerve cells and lack of desire, you are unlikely to be able to achieve anything.

People become scientists when they can combine hobbies with work. If you are really interested in mathematics, then you will be delayed by the process of its in-depth study. So, if there is a field of science that interests you, to which you have a tendency in school and which was given to you easier than others, then you can undoubtedly become a scientist.

How to become a scientist

Dreams rarely coincide with reality. So, if you want to become a scientist, it’s not enough just to read the literature of interest to you and study the information on the Internet. Unfortunately, the development of this profession requires financial investment, sometimes a considerable one.

You will succeed in becoming a scientific researcher if you work on yourself and your level of knowledge. If you are not a nugget who can, without outside help, make any estimates or invent a cure for cancer, then you will certainly need a higher education.

Nothing is impossible, and science knew great people who, without proper training, made stunning discoveries, but, you see, one in a million chance.

When receiving an education, consider the recommendations:

  • Choose a university that offers continuing studies in graduate school, because it is it that prepares future researchers. Master is also important, but it focuses on obtaining the knowledge necessary for the implementation of practical activities, and not for making new discoveries.
  • The university must be one of the best. Read reviews, look at training programs, visit open doors. Pay attention to the professors of the educational institution who are interested in gaining knowledge by students. Chat with alumni.
  • Mastering the institute’s program is far from all. You need to attend seminars, trainings in your specialty in parallel, study the information yourself. If you are interested in the field of science, then the learning process will not get bored.
  • Remember about scientific papers. As you gain knowledge, your own vision of many problems of science is formed. Describe it in your scientific writings. Articles are published in special collections and magazines. This will not only help you become a scientist, but also add points when defending a dissertation.

Remember self-improvement. How to become a scientist if you do not develop as a person? Therefore, find time to relax and chat with interesting people.

General recommendations

When you go to the intended goal, all obstacles on the way seem invisible. But sometimes we forget about important things, without which the tasks that we set for ourselves are impossible. So, how to become a scientist:

  • Chat with people in your circle. Common interests will not only unite you, but also lead to new discoveries.
  • Choose a supervisor with great ambitions. This advice is given by many established scientists.
  • Take an interest in everything. The circle of your interests must necessarily be much more than just your specialization.
  • Do not waste time on meaningless achievements. For example, if you are a chemist, then you should not spend days in the study of mathematics.

Many successful scholars admit that they often ignored objects that were not related to their direction.

Scientist lifestyle

Of course, everything is not limited to scientific knowledge. Everyday life and environmental factors contribute to the formation of personality and make you choose between science and life.

How to become a scientist if you are not supported by a family, if you live in a small unpromising town, or if you do not have enough finances to carry out experiments? Based on such factors, one can say about the following points:

  • The family must support your desire to be a scientist. Those close to you must understand that you do not just sit up for books until late at night, and that the experiments you conduct are not worthless. In the end, that is important to you.
  • In any case, after graduation you will have to spend a certain amount on your ideas. It’s good if you find a sponsor.
  • Perhaps you have long trips ahead. This is especially true for researchers.
  • Do not be afraid to come to a banal conclusion. It is normal that new discoveries are based on already known achievements.

A significant role is played by the personal qualities of a person.

How to become a degree applicant

But the time of study at the university is, on average, only 5 years. And then what? Is science over?

No. The best graduates are given the right to go to graduate school. The result here is a degree. But this is a very serious way, so to speak, "science in an adult way." To pass it, you need:

  • choose a supervisor who will lead the young scientist to the cherished goal,
  • choose a new, important, previously unexplored topic,
  • thoroughly study the selected topic,
  • present individual results of their work in the form of scientific articles and reports at major scientific conferences,
  • share experiences with other scientists,
  • collaborate with the supervisor, learn from his experience,
  • prepare a dissertation, which will describe all the details of the study,
  • successfully defend this work before the academic council, which includes the most advanced scientists in this field.

The nature of the future scientist

No matter how talented a student is, he cannot become a scientist without certain qualities of character. To achieve the goal, develop the following qualities in yourself:

  • Ambitiousness.
  • Perseverance.
  • Thinking outside the box.
  • The ability to acknowledge and analyze your mistakes.
  • The ability to set goals.

It is unlikely that you will be able to immediately achieve tangible results, but do not give up. The achievement of great goals is built on this.

Japan, National Institute of Materials and Chemical Technology

In fact, I went to Israel, thinking that in Russia everything would get better quickly, but this did not happen. Shortly before the end of the Weizmann scholarship, I was invited to work in Japan. The visa application procedure was delayed, and I received it already in Russia. I went to Japan in January 1998. At this point, twins were born, and I had to leave my wife with three children at home in Akademgorodok. My family came to me only a year later. In Japan, I worked for almost three years at the National Institute of Materials and Chemical Technology, located in Tsukuba, a city created in the image of Academgorodok. The head of the laboratory was a remarkable theoretical physicist Masanori Tachia. He managed to assemble a strong multinational team of researchers, in which Japanese, Russian, Polish, Korean and Indian scientists worked together, and a wonderful atmosphere for theoretical work was created in the laboratory. In Tsukuba, I was able to solve several problems in calculating the rates of chemical reactions that I started working on back in Novosibirsk. We wrote a large review article in the authoritative journal Advances of Chemical Physics by a team of two Japanese and two Russian scientists. Thus, the scientific topic that I dealt with from 1987 to 1999 was successfully completed. Masanori Tachiya paid great attention to inter-scientific relations and systematically invited to Tsukuba with lectures by leading researchers from the best universities in the world. At one of these lectures, I met Nobel laureate Rudolph (Rudy) Marcus. I told him about my work, and asked if he would hire me to work in Caltech. And Rudy answered: "Of course I take it."

How to relate to people around you

Do not be afraid of competition. Your rivals are a source of information, communicate with them more often. Also make friends with them. Surround yourself with people who are equal or stronger than you, the only way you can constantly develop. But for friendship, do not forget about competition, because this is the engine of progress.

Opponents can, without realizing it, give you valuable advice or accidentally give out useful information. But you do not just need to consume. Do not regret to give useful advice to other scientists, so that your friendship is mutually beneficial.

Misconceptions about the profession of a scientist

Now we will analyze a few myths that are fundamentally wrong. Because of them, many talented guys abandon their goal, which entails the destruction of their dreams, as well as a decrease in progress in science:

  • To become a scientist, you need connections. Believe me: science is almost the only industry where no one can stay thanks to connections. Если вы перспективный ученый, вас будут приглашать участвовать в различных исследованиях.
  • Только опытный педагог сможет научить студента. Как показывает практика, как раз молодые и амбициозные преподаватели давали толчок своим подопечным в мир науки. They have not yet settled on one theory that they are trying to explain to everyone they come across, therefore they are aware of new achievements, they are looking for ways to solve problems, they are trying to delve into science even more, which is also taught to students.
  • Scientists earn little. Amateurs earn little, not scientists. If a person is truly devoted to his work, then, of course, he will reach new heights, bringing him good profit. But for this you need to be sociable, so that for any unforeseen event you have sponsors who are interested in your business.
  • A scientist is an unpromising profession. ” Any branches of life may become irrelevant, but not science. Humanity needs new discoveries, so good scientists today are worth its weight in gold.

Science and politics

Any other activity, including political, begins with science. In developed countries, scientists who have become politicians are very good at their job. You must admit that the Minister of Ecology will deal much better with air pollution problems if he is aware of them, if he directly examined them. Or it is much easier to deal with the problem of financing in the country if the Minister of Finance is a mathematician or economist.

A person who knows how to explore the field of science, who understands it from the inside, is in demand in politics, because he will come to the right decision faster and implement this decision better than an ordinary university graduate.

Science and Writing

Very often, scientists who have achieved their goals sit down to write books and pass on knowledge to the younger generation. They are the property of the country. Scientists who have become writers will teach students to remember, analyze and search for the right information.

Almost all people of science sit down at their own book when they feel that their knowledge is enough to share it with the outside world. In addition, in this way they gain fame and become popular.

Thus, becoming a scientist is a difficult but feasible task. Fight for your goal. And perhaps your name will sound in the world of science.

USA. California Institute of Technology, University of California, Irvine

For me, Rudy was and remains a teacher, a man who sets the bar that you want to follow. Imagine, now he is 91 years old, but he is still actively working and publishing. This is a scientist of incredible brain power, in 1992 he received the Nobel Prize for his work in 1954-1955, which still has not lost its relevance. At the same time, he is extremely friendly and responsive: they write a lot to him, call, ask questions, ask for advice, ask for work. And there was no case that he did not answer or answered with a formal reply. Always trying to help, very easy to communicate. This is a keen person who has always been interested in new things, due to which he periodically completely changes the scope of his activity, despite his considerable age. “I’ll take you to work, but I’m no longer doing this task, you will have to change the topic of research,” he said when we met. Therefore, in Kaltech, I set about solving a problem from a completely different scientific field - the physics of nanoscale systems. In 2000, an article was published by a research group from Denver that measured the radiation intensity of single nanocrystals. The results were absolutely fantastic - the nanocrystals flickered, changing the intensity in a completely unpredictable way.

I enthusiastically took up this task, believing that I can deal with it in 3 months. But only after 4 years did I have an understanding of what was going on inside the nanocrystal.

I plunged into this topic for a long time: I worked closely on it until my departure from the USA and I continue to work on its solution until now. When my time at Caltech ran out, I found work at the University of California. The university has 10 independent campuses scattered throughout California. I ended up on a campus in Irvine, where I spent 4 years calculating the quantum thermodynamics of nanoclusters in collaboration with a young professor Vladimir Mandelstam. But the mystery of the flicker of nanocrystals did not let me go. In 2005, together with Professor Marcus, I published an article in the journal Physical Review, which offered an original explanation of the phenomenon.

School-Studio "Pencil"

In California, our twins went to school. Before that, they had not heard English at all, at home we showed only Russian films, read Russian books, and we did not have a TV. They did not communicate with American children. However, after six months of studying at an American school, we began to notice that the children spoke English to each other. But we always knew that we would return to Russia, and the task of preserving the Russian language and the standards of Russian education was very urgent for us. Therefore, the Russian-language school-studio "Pencil" was formed. I became her president, and my wife became the organizer and ideological inspirer. Generally speaking, emigrants in the USA organize many Russian schools, but most of them have an entertaining format. Everything was serious with us: lessons, homework and the requirement to communicate only in Russian. Classes were held on Saturdays. When they ask me whether it is possible to reproduce the “Pencil” in Russian conditions, I say: “Most likely not.” Because once again to gather at the same time in one place such a stellar teaching staff is hardly possible. The literature was taught to our children by a member of the Union of Journalists Elena Dzyaloshinskaya, the wife of the outstanding Russian physicist Igor Dzyaloshinsky. Russian language - Alena Klimovich, professor of Slavic studies at the University of Minsk. Mathematics - Natalia Eitineier, who worked at the MAI design bureau, history - graduated from NSU Lena Chernyshova, a specialist in the history of the USSR, physics - professor Kaltekha Anton Kapustin, a theoretical physicist working in the field of string theory. The mathematics faculty was taught by Svetlana Zhitomirskaya, a professor at the University of California. Education was conducted by the method of game immersion in the linguistic and cultural environment. Once every few months we organized theatrical performances, quests based on Russian folk tales, seasons, and literary heroes. Everyone took part in these productions and games - both children and parents, and it was unforgettable. After our departure, the Pencil school continues its successful activities. Last year she turned 10 years old.

Participants in the play "Peppy - Long Stocking" at the school-studio "Pencil" (California).

University of Notre Dame. Return

My article in collaboration with Rudolf Marcus gained fame. And as a result, in 2007 I received an invitation to become a professor-researcher at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, where I worked for the next 3.5 years. In Notre Dame, I completely focused on the problem of flickering nanocrystals in collaboration with the experimental group of Professor Masaru Kuno and the theoretical group of Professor Boldijar Yanko, and this led to success. In 2008, our brilliant team, co-authored with Rudolf Marcus, published a flicker review article in the most prestigious physics journal in the world, Nature Physics. In 2009, Physical Review Letters co-authored my article with Professor Janko and my graduate student Sandor Volkan-Kakso with a fundamentally new model of flicker of nanocrystals that qualitatively describes all the known properties of this phenomenon, followed by several more articles in top scientific journals. But in 2010, my contract expired, and I had to decide what to do next. It was possible to look for work in the USA, in addition, I had an invitation to become a professor in Brazil.

there was a feeling that in Russia everything was moving forward, and there was a desire to participate in this ongoing process, even in a situation of uncertainty, without guaranteed job offers.

In addition, our children at that moment were already 13 years old and they needed to be transferred to the Russian cultural environment. Therefore, at the end of 2010, we returned to Russia, to Akademgorodok, not yet having an idea of ​​what we would do here. (To be continued.)