Muscle rupture is damage to muscle fibers caused by severe contraction or overuse of muscles. Often occurs in athletes and can be divided into three stages: mild, intermediate and severe.
Let's take a look at which muscles are most often affected and what are the symptoms of muscle rupture.
What is muscle break
Muscle rupture is pathological conditionthat occurs when skeletal muscle overload, that leads to muscle fiber breakdownforming a muscle.
Usually occurs when the muscle is subjected to excessive load, for example, lifting a very heavy load, when it is for a long time in a state of contraction or is subjected to violent and sudden stretching.
Muscle rupture can occur in any person, but people who play sports (children and adults) are more susceptible, both professionally and amateurly.
Types of muscle breaks
Muscle ruptures can be divided into several types, depending on the severity and mode of occurrence.
Depending on the severity and number of affected muscle fibers, we have:
- 1 degree: Least serious muscle injury when not more than 5% of muscle fibers are damaged. It does not lead to restrictions in movements and severe pain, only the affected areas are concerned. There is no decrease in muscle strength.
- 2 degrees: injuries of the intermediate class, in which 10 to 50% of muscle fibers are damaged. The victim feels acute pain, and some movements may be limited. For example, in case of damage to the muscles of the lower extremities, the subject is still able to walk, but does so with great difficulty.
- 3 degrees: The most serious form when 3/4 muscle fibers are damaged or complete muscle breakdown occurs. The pain is acute and intense, movements are given with great difficulty. For example, in the case of damage to the muscles of the legs, the subject is unable to walk or maintain a vertical position.
Depending on the cause, there are two forms of muscle break:
- Sharp: the gap occurs suddenly. It is characteristic of injuries sustained during intense and intense work, when the muscles stretch too quickly.
- Chronic: tearing occurs gradually as the number of damaged fibers increases. Inherent to injuries arising from repeated movements.
Muscle break may include any muscle human body, but more often occurs at the level of upper and lower extremities:
- Muscles of the lower extremities: for example, the quadriceps muscle (located in front of the thighs), the biceps of the thigh (located behind the thigh), the abducting and adductor muscles (also known as the muscles of the outer and inner thighs), the muscles of the buttocks or calves.
- Muscles of the upper extremities: for example, biceps (located in the front of the arms), triceps (located in the back of the arms) or deltoid muscle (located between the shoulder and arm).
- Other muscles: although the gap rarely affects other muscles, damage can occur in other parts of the body. For example, the muscles of the abdomen and lower abdomen, muscles of the armpit, pectoral muscles, muscles in the lumbar region (i.e., in the region of the lower part of the spine), intercostal muscles (which are located between the ribs), and inguinal muscles can be involved.
Causes and Risk Factors
The cause of most muscle breaks is excessive muscle tension during movement or during repetitive movements.
However, there are risk factors that can predispose to muscle breakdown:
- Lack of adequate muscle training for the expected load.
- Excessive fatigue of the muscles, to such an extent that they are not able to withstand the effort.
- Hard training after a long rest from training.
Another possible cause of muscle rupture is indirect injuries or bruising, that is, when the muscle is hit hard by something. For example, when during football a player receives a strong kick from another partner, which leads to muscle fiber damage.
Symptoms of muscle break
Muscle rupture at first can occur even without pain. However, severe acute pain later appears as the main symptom to which other symptoms may join, including:
- Edema, redness and severe burning of the affected area.
- The presence of edema, that is, accumulation of fluid at the level of the damaged muscle.
- The formation of a hematoma due to rupture of the vessels of the muscle.
- The appearance of dips with a complete break in the muscle.
- Sometimes the presence of fever.
Symptoms of muscle rupture can sometimes be manifestations of other diseases (for example, redness, swelling and the presence of fever may occur due to thrombosis) and, therefore, it is necessary to perform the correct diagnosis.
Diagnostics - How to Determine Muscle Tear
A doctor can diagnose muscle breakdown with:
- Case histories patient to understand when the pain occurred and how.
- Examination of the affected partto check for bruising, swelling, and acute pain.
- Muscle ultrasoundto determine the type of damage and severity.
- MRI, used if the ultrasound does not give a clear picture of the severity of the injury.
How to treat muscle rupture
Muscle rupture heals in different ways, depending on the degree of damage. A muscle rupture of the 1st degree heals in a couple of weeks, recovery from a rupture of the 2nd degree takes from 15 days to one month.
Treatment of muscle rupture of the 3rd degree takes at least one month, and sometimes requires surgical intervention, which involves suturing.
For primary care in case of muscle breaks, such means as cold or heat are used, the so-called REST method (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) is implemented.
In particular, primary care should consist of the following steps:
- Refusal of any sports activities to provide the muscles with a state of rest.
- Apply ice to the affected area for at least twenty minutes, repeated every quarter hour.
- Applying a compressive bandage to the affected areas to reduce blood flow to the damaged area and avoid the appearance of a hematoma.
- If we are talking about the lower limb, put a pillow under it, so as to maintain its position above the body, to avoid the accumulation of fluid and reduce swelling.
- 72 hours after a muscle break, ice can be changed to a heat source that helps dissolve blood clots. Up to 72 hours it is not recommended to apply heat, as this can worsen the outflow of blood from blood vessels, causing vasodilation.
For the treatment of muscle tears of the 1st degree, you can use herbal remedies:
Gotu kola contains pentacyclic triterpenoids, which strengthen blood vessels and reduce the effects of fluid accumulation, such as edema. It is recommended to take in the form of capsules, two capsules in the morning and evening.
Black currant: used as a natural anti-inflammatory agent, thanks to active ingredients such as flavonoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C. Can be taken in pill form, one daily in the morning and evening, or in the form of drops, dosage of 50 drops several times a day.
Devil's claw: contains arpagosides as an active ingredient, which are powerful anti-inflammatory substances. Several tablets should be taken daily, preferably after a meal, or as an ointment directly at the site of damage.
Arnica: contains sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, astragaline and other active ingredients that have anti-inflammatory properties. It can be applied as an ointment directly to the site of damage.
Ginger: contains gingerol and essential oils, which reduce the production of inflammatory mediators. The regimen and dosage differ depending on the case, it can be taken in the form of capsules or herbal tea.
For treatment painful symptoms muscle break your doctor may prescribe some medications (usually anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs or muscle relaxants), which can be administered orally, intramuscularly or applied topically as an ointment.
Among the most actively used:
- Thiocolchicoside: This medicine relaxes muscles, which prevents involuntary muscle contractures that can aggravate damage. It is used, as a rule, together with diclofenac, both orally and as a solution for injection.
- Diclofenac: this drug belongs to the category of anti-inflammatory drugs. Together with thiocolchicoside, it is used in the form of a solution for injection, can also be taken in the form of tablets or topically in the form of an ointment.
- Ketoprofen: An anti-inflammatory that helps relieve pain. It can be applied topically as an ointment or orally.
- Ibuprofen: anti-inflammatory agent used to relieve pain. It is administered orally in the form of tablets.
- Paracetamol: It is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic that can be used in large doses, as it does not cause gastrointestinal problems. Exists in the form of effervescent tablets and candles.
Classification of muscle strain of the peritoneum occurs depending on the severity of the injury. In medical practice, it is customary to diagnose all cases with sprains in three main stages:
- The first, moderate degree of stretching, in which special treatment is not required, and all symptoms and pains disappear after 1-2 weeks, provided that the patient adheres to a sparing regimen.
- The second, moderate degree, in which the symptoms are expressed with an average degree of intensity, but go away after a couple of weeks. At this degree, in some cases, patients need qualified treatment. Recovery usually occurs 3-6 weeks after the incident.
- The third, severe degree, in which a rupture of the muscle group of the abdominal press is often noted. Symptoms in this case are pronounced. Most often, the abdominal connection is broken. A damaged muscle is unable to contract. Treatment, sometimes even surgical, lasts in this case an average of 3 months.
With a stretching of the abdominal muscles, standard symptoms characteristic of this pathology are observed. If the sprains are accompanied by micro-tears of the muscles, then the symptoms can manifest themselves more clearly and be more intense. The main clinical manifestations of this pathology can be called the following:
- discomfort in the area of damaged muscles,
- pain when trying to bend the body and tension the muscles of the peritoneum,
- sharp intensifying pain during palpation at the place of stretching,
- muscle cramps of the peritoneum,
- in especially severe cases, the formation of edema and hematoma is possible, which should be a signal to the victim regarding urgent seeking qualified help.
Diagnostic methods for stretching the muscles of the peritoneum
In addition to medical problems associated with stretching the muscles of the peritoneum, many patients have to deal with problems of aesthetic nature.
In order to avoid many problems with the functioning of internal organs, including the digestive system, the formation of hernias, the omission of internal organs, further damage to the muscles and their divergence along the center line of the peritoneum after childbirth, it is necessary to timely diagnose distension. This will allow you to appoint the right treatment regimen in time and will contribute to the full restoration of the muscle system.
Also, with the manifestation of any symptoms of muscle strain in this part of the body, timely treatment for women is very important, who are preparing for pregnancy or are in the early stages of pregnancy. This will help to avoid a number of problems that may worsen at a later date and after childbirth.
What actions are used in the treatment
Treatment of the disease directly depends on the intensity and severity of the symptoms and the degree of injury. So, with different degrees of severity, it can last from several days to several months.
The main thing for patients with this trauma is to ensure complete rest for the abdominal muscles and the absence of any, even the most minimal, loads. In everyday life, lifting heavy objects, abrupt movements and other actions that cause contraction of the abdominal muscles should be avoided. Sparing regimen is especially important in the first two days after the incident.
For moderate and severe stretchings, exposure to cold is recommended in sessions of 15-20 minutes, with breaks. Cold compresses will help reduce pain. As a cold, compresses of ice cubes wrapped in cellophane and a towel can be used. Exposing ice directly to exposed skin is not recommended.
To relieve severe and intense pain, the doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics in the form of tablets, injections or ointments. This will help to significantly alleviate the condition and general well-being of the patient.
When the pain goes away, you can begin to gradually stretch the affected muscle. To do this, you can perform the most gentle exercises, gradually complicating them and increasing the load.
In some cases, patients with these problems have to turn to modern plastic surgery. In this case, aesthetic problems are eliminated to a greater extent.
What should not be forgotten after an injury
It is very effective to help reduce the likelihood of this injury in a sports environment by warming up workouts before direct workouts. To do this, for 20 minutes it is recommended to perform conventional physical exercises for stretching, to do warm-up runs, etc.
In order to avoid stretching in everyday life, you need to calculate your strength when physical work with lifting weights is ahead. During its implementation, it is recommended to take breaks and rest.
To maintain their muscles in good shape and strengthen them, it is very important to give the muscles optimal loads on a systematic basis. You can, for example, attend sports halls several times a week, do morning exercises or do daily jogging.