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Diagnosis of coronary heart disease, classification, symptoms and treatment

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Under the general name coronary heart disease (CHD, coronary disease), a group of diseases is caused by oxygen starvation of tissues caused by insufficient coronary blood flow, absolute or relative. Atherosclerotic stenosis of the coronary arteries is the root cause of myocardial blood supply disorders. Heart ischemia is considered as a cardiac form of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Ischemic phenomena caused by the course of other diseases as manifestations of coronary heart disease are not classified.

Forms of Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease has many options for the course and clinical manifestations, new data appear annually on the causes and mechanisms of the development of pathology. Therefore, there is no single classification of cardiac ischemia yet. In clinical practice, acute and chronic ischemic heart disease are distinguished. Acute myocardial ischemia is divided into the following forms:

  • Sudden coronary death
  • Painless myocardial ischemia:
  • Angina pectoris,
  • Myocardial infarction.

Chronic forms of ischemic heart disease:

  • Postinfarction cardiosclerosis,
  • Atherosclerotic diffuse cardiosclerosis,
  • Chronic aneurysm of the heart.

Sudden coronary death

With this form, the disease can be asymptomatic, the heart stops unexpectedly, in the absence of visible prerequisites for a fatal outcome. With immediate medical attention, successful resuscitation of the patient is possible. Many cases occur outside the hospital, mortality in this form of the course of coronary heart disease approaches 100%.

Factors that increase the likelihood of sudden coronary death:

  • Heart failure,
  • Severe arterial hypertension,
  • Strong psycho-emotional stress,
  • Excessive exercise
  • Ischemia of the heart, weighed by ventricular forms of arrhythmia,
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Chronic intoxication,
  • Violations of carbohydrate or fat metabolism.

Painless myocardial ischemia

The disease is asymptomatic for a long time and often leads to sudden death of the patient. In this case, ischemia leads to typical complications: arrhythmias and heart failure. Often, signs of painless ischemia are detected by accident, when handling on other occasions. At risk are people with heavy physical labor, the elderly, suffering from diabetes. A painless form of coronary heart disease is more common in alcohol abusers.

Sometimes the disease is manifested by feelings of unclear discomfort in the chest, accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. Heartburn or shortness of breath is possible, sometimes - weakness in the left hand.

To confirm the diagnosis, monitoring by Holter and / or stress ECG is required. During an ECG-triggered seizure, characteristic signs of ischemia are noticeable. Treatment of painless ischemia is carried out according to the scheme, typical for all forms of ischemic heart disease. The prognosis varies depending on the severity of the identified lesion.

What is an ailment? general information

What is coronary heart disease? Symptoms, diagnosis, therapy - this is what interests many patients. But first, it’s worth it to deal with the basic facts.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a pathology that is accompanied by functional and / or organic lesions of the heart muscle. Disorders of the myocardium with such an ailment are associated with insufficient blood supply to the organ or its complete cessation.

It is worth noting that such a diagnosis of "coronary heart disease" is most often given to men of active age (from 55 to 64 years). Of course, the development of the disease in female patients or in boys of a younger age is not excluded.

This pathology is associated with an imbalance between the need for myocardial blood supply and actual blood flow. If the heart muscle for one reason or another does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, which is inevitably observed with a violation of blood supply, then pathological changes are possible, including sclerosis, dystrophy and necrosis.

According to statistics, in about 60-70% of cases, the acute form of coronary heart disease leads to a sudden death of the patient. That is why the correct and, most importantly, modern diagnosis of coronary heart disease is so important.

Chest pain

Coronary heart disease often manifests its first symptoms with any physical or emotional stress. An inadequate blood supply to the myocardium is indicated by angina attacks. The patient feels pressure or constriction in the chest, as if someone is standing on his chest. Symptoms of coronary heart disease and angina pectoris occur against the background of physical stress or emotional stress (angina pectoris). Usually they disappear within a few minutes after the cessation of physical activity, at rest. In some people, especially women, this pain is fleeting or acute, it gives to the stomach, back or arm. Read more about symptoms of angina pectoris in women here.

If the heart is not able to pump enough blood for the body, with physical exertion, shortness of breath or severe fatigue develops.

Angina pectoris

Has a paroxysmal course. Angina attacks develop in cases where the myocardium requires more oxygen than it currently receives. The patient has a feeling of suffocation, discomfort, compression or pain in the heart, the heart rhythm changes. The nature and intensity of anginal pain with angina attacks vary greatly. The pain radiates along the left side of the chest, into the arm, neck, jaw, under the shoulder blade. Irradiation to the right side or region of the epigastrium occurs less often. Signs of coronary heart disease in men in most cases are manifested in the form of classic angina attacks.

Can provoke an attack:

  • Unusual or excessive exercise
  • Great excitement, emotional stress,
  • Overeating,
  • The transition from heat to cold.

The seizures have a clearly defined beginning and end, pass spontaneously after unloading, or stop with vasodilator drugs (nitroglycerin or validol).

There are several forms of angina pectoris, in particular, stable and unstable. With a stable course, the onset of the attack is relatively predictable, the same loads are accompanied by stereotypic reactions. If the pain persists within 15 minutes, despite the elimination of the provoking factor and / or taking nitroglycerin, irreversible changes begin in the myocardium, and a heart attack develops.

The weakening of the effectiveness of the usual drugs indicates a possible transition of angina to unstable or progressive. Angina that occurs for the first time is also unstable. In this case, the prognosis is unclear, the signs of ischemia can disappear completely, the disease can become stable or lead to myocardial infarction. The most dangerous is progressive angina pectoris, in which seizures become more frequent, longer and more painful. This condition often precedes myocardial infarction. Patients with any form of angina should be monitored by a cardiologist to timely detect changes in health status and prevent complications.

The causes of the development of the disease. Description of risk factors

How and why does coronary heart disease develop? Diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation are important issues. But to begin with, it is worth learning more about the causes of the development of pathology.

In approximately 97-98% of cases, this disease is associated with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. It is these vessels that provide myocardial nutrition. Accordingly, even a slight narrowing of the lumen of the coronary arteries adversely affects the state of the heart muscles. Complete vessel occlusion leads to the development of acute ischemia, angina pectoris, heart attack, and sometimes sudden death. The list of other causes includes thromboembolism (clogging of the lumen of a vessel with a blood clot).

Of course, the above pathologies themselves do not develop. The occurrence of certain risk factors leads to their appearance. Diagnosis of coronary heart disease should also be aimed at determining the causes of the development of the disease.

  • First of all, it is worth mentioning hyperlipidemia. This condition is accompanied by a sharp increase in the level of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood. An abnormal increase in the amount of fat in the blood contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. It is proved that the risk of developing coronary heart disease in people with hyperlipidemia increases 2-5 times.
  • One of the main risk factors is arterial hypertension. According to the results of studies, the risk of developing coronary disease in patients with high blood pressure (it is a chronic pathology, not random, temporary pressure surges) is 2-8 times higher.
  • It is impossible not to mention heredity. If among relatives of a person there are people suffering from coronary heart disease, then the likelihood of developing pathology is much more.
  • According to statistics, coronary heart disease (symptoms, diagnosis of the disease will be described below) is much more often diagnosed in older men. Therefore, risk factors include floor and age the patient.
  • Patients with diabetes (including in the latent form of the disease) are more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease.
  • Risk factors include physical inactivity and obesity. It is proved that cases of coronary disease are three times more likely to be diagnosed in people who lead an inactive lifestyle. As you know, physical inactivity is often combined with obesity. Being overweight also increases the chances of developing an ailment.
  • Smoking has a negative effect on the cardiovascular system, since nicotine causes a spasm of small vessels, including the coronary arteries.

Correctly performed diagnosis of coronary heart disease allows you to determine not only the stage and severity of the disease, but also its causes. Already on the basis of these data, the doctor will be able to draw up an effective treatment regimen. It should be understood that in most cases, coronary heart disease develops under the influence of several factors.

Myocardial infarction

Strong physical or emotional stress, tachycardia attacks or a prolonged angina attack can lead to myocardial infarction. Increased myocardial demand stimulates increased blood flow into the coronary bed and damage to atherosclerotic plaques is possible. The damaged plaque completely or partially blocks the lumen of the vessel, tissue necrosis develops in the affected area. The degree of myocardial damage depends on the location and degree of occlusion of the coronary vessels. The defeat of the small arteries of the coronary channel leads to the development of small foci of necrosis, with complete overlap of the lumen of one of the coronary arteries, a large-focal, transmural or extensive myocardial infarction develops.

Possible sudden myocardial infarction is indicated by severe sudden pain behind the sternum, accompanied by a fear of death. Pain radiates throughout the chest, the direction and area of ​​irradiation depend on the location and extent of myocardial damage. Among the atypical symptoms of a heart attack are abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. It is important to note that the symptoms of coronary disease in women and those with diabetes often differ from classic anginal pains. The clinical variant of the course may belong to one of the rare variants of the course, up to painless.

Suspicion of myocardial infarction is a direct indication for emergency hospitalization of the patient. Modern methods of treating coronary heart disease have significantly reduced the recovery time after a heart attack, but it is still impossible to fully restore myocardial function. In the post-infarction period, coronary heart disease becomes chronic. The patient is forced to take maintenance drugs for life and be observed by a doctor.

Coronary heart disease: classification

The term IHD combines various pathological conditions associated with impaired myocardial blood supply:

  • Sudden coronary death. In this case, we are talking about primary cardiac arrest, which occurred as a result of electrical instability of the heart muscle. A person in this condition can be successfully resuscitated (naturally, if the patient receives timely help).
  • Angina pectoris. In this case, the pathology can take various forms. There are stable, unstable, spontaneous and some other types of angina pectoris. Pathology is accompanied by pain behind the sternum, which often extends to the left shoulder and shoulder blade.
  • Myocardial infarction. A condition that is accompanied by necrosis of a certain section of the heart muscle that occurs against a background of insufficient blood supply.
  • Cardiosclerosis In most cases, a similar pathology develops as a result of a previous heart attack. Areas of heart muscle that underwent necrosis begin to change - muscle fibers are replaced by connective tissue, as a result of which the myocardium loses contractile properties.
  • Heart rhythm disturbances. These pathologies almost inevitably arise with narrowing of blood vessels, because the blood begins to pass through “jerks”.
  • Heart failure. Chronic violation of myocardial trophism may be accompanied by a violation of the physiological activity and anatomical structure of the heart.

What symptoms should I look for?

What is coronary heart disease? Diagnosis, treatment is, of course, important information. However, many patients are interested in symptoms. What are the first signs of CHD? What violations should I look for?

  • Disorders of the heart are often accompanied by shortness of breath. At first, breathing problems appear during physical activity, for example, when walking fast, climbing stairs, etc. But as the disease progresses, shortness of breath appears even at rest.
  • Arrhythmias are also included in the list of symptoms. Patients complain of an increased and rapid heartbeat.
  • CHD is often accompanied by changes in blood pressure - patients are diagnosed with hypo- or hypertension.
  • Angina pectoris is accompanied by pain in the chest area. Some patients note a feeling of squeezing and burning behind the sternum. Pain can be given to the shoulder, neck, shoulder blade. Sometimes the pain syndrome is very intense and can not be stopped by drugs.

Unfortunately, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic coronary heart disease is often difficult, because in most cases people ignore a small shortness of breath and weak, periodic tingling in the heart. A doctor is contacted already in the late stages of the development of the disease.

Cardiosclerosis

Cardiosclerosis can be focal or diffuse.

The focal form is a connective tissue scar that replaces a necrotic area of ​​the heart muscle after a myocardial infarction. diffuse cardiosclerosis develops due to the gradual replacement of cardiomyocytes with connective tissue elements. The connective tissue is not able to contract, due to the increased load on the unchanged areas of the myocardium, their hypertrophy occurs, accompanied by deformation of the valves. Focal cardiosclerosis is detected after the final scarring of the necrotic area of ​​the heart muscle, i.e. 3-4 months after myocardial infarction. Hypertrophy of areas of the heart walls not affected by a heart attack occurs, dangerous forms of arrhythmia and chronic heart failure develop.

Diffuse cardiosclerosis develops slowly, years may elapse from the onset of pathological changes to the first clinical manifestations. Inflammatory myocardial diseases, hypodynamia, chronic intoxication, overeating, unbalanced nutrition contribute to the development of cardiosclerosis.

Cardiosclerosis refers to irreversible pathologies, maintenance therapy does not eliminate arrhythmia and manifestations of heart failure, but only alleviates the patient's condition.

Suspected Ischemia Tests

If the patient consults a specialist with complaints of recurring chest pain and shortness of breath, the doctor first of all collects a complete history. It is important to find out exactly when the symptoms occurred, whether there are heart diseases in close relatives, whether the patient has bad habits, etc.

Further laboratory studies are carried out. For example, the level of troponins, myoglobin and aminotransferases in the blood is determined - it is these protein compounds that are released during the destruction of cardiomyocytes.

In addition, the patient’s blood is checked for the presence of an increased amount of glucose, lipoproteins and cholesterol - this helps to diagnose concomitant diseases, and sometimes to determine the cause of coronary disease (for example, atherosclerosis).

Heart aneurysm

Aneurysm of the heart is another variant of the post-infarction chronic course of IHD. It is a saccular protrusion of a thinned myocardial site and refers to pathologies that do not imply a favorable outcome without qualified assistance. Консервативные методы лечения ишемической болезни сердца при аневризме применяются для укрепления миокарда и стабилизации состояния пациента перед операцией.

Instrumental diagnostics

Decisive in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease is such a simple and affordable study as an electrocardiogram. During the procedure, the doctor can check the electrical activity of the heart, detect certain violations of the myocardial rhythm.

EchoCG is also mandatory. This study allows you to determine the size of the heart, evaluate its contractile activity, visualize the state of the valves and cavities of the myocardium, and study specific acoustic noises. Additionally, stress echocardiography is performed, since symptoms of ischemia can sometimes be detected only during physical activity.

Informative is the daily monitoring of the ECG. A special device is attached to the patient’s shoulder, which measures cardiac activity during the day. In addition, the patient should write down in a special diary his actions, changes in health.

Often performed transesophageal electrocardiography. A special sensor is inserted into the patient's esophagus, which records the performance of the heart. Thus, the doctor can evaluate the conductivity and electrical excitability of the myocardium.

Quite often, doctors prescribe positron emission tomography (PET) for patients. Diagnosis of coronary heart disease involves the study of myocardial blood flow. This technique also allows you to measure the rate of utilization of glucose in a particular area of ​​the myocardium, evaluate the activity of the metabolism of fatty acids, measure the amount of oxygen consumed. A PET diagnosis of coronary heart disease is carried out if any segment of the heart muscle looks like a scar.

A lot of useful information can be obtained after coronary angiography. Contrast is introduced into the coronary vessels, and then its movements are traced. Using this procedure, a specialist can determine the presence of vascular obstruction, as well as the degree of occlusion and stenosis.

The differential diagnosis of coronary heart disease is also important, because symptoms such as pain behind the sternum and shoulder, as well as shortness of breath develop against other diseases, including autonomic neurosis, pathologies of the peripheral nervous system, paraneoplastic syndrome, pleural lesions, etc.

Causes of the disease

The main cause of most cases of coronary heart disease is atherosclerotic lesion of the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension are the main background diseases for the development of IHD. Factors that indirectly contribute to the development of this pathology include:

  • Improper nutrition. This category includes foods rich in fats and fast carbohydrates. Such food leads either to the direct formation of cholesterol plaques on the walls of blood vessels, or to deep metabolic disturbances and obesity.
  • Excess weight. In overweight people, the heart works in constant overload mode, obesity is one of the most common causes of many cardiopathologies. Therefore, all recommendations on how to treat cardiac ischemia necessarily contain an item on the need to keep weight under control.
  • Emotional overstrain. The release of adrenaline in stressful conditions prepares the body for the choice to “run or fight,” the heart switches to a more intense mode of operation. Acute coronary heart disease is often manifested for the first time precisely against the background of severe excitement. In a state of chronic stress, myocardial wear accelerates. In addition, stress biochemistry contributes to the formation of cholesterol deposits on the walls of blood vessels.
  • Chronic intoxication. The occasional use of alcohol, tobacco in any form or narcotic substances leads to a short-term disruption of the heart and the cardiovascular system as a whole. with systematic use, the heart works in an abnormal mode almost constantly, which becomes the cause of pathological changes in the vessels and myocardium.
  • Endocrine diseases, in particular diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal tumors.
  • Inadequate or excessive physical activity.

Among the additional risk factors are old age, male gender, insufficiency of certain microelements.

A classic manifestation of cardiac ischemia is an attack of angina pectoris with characteristic sternal pains known as angina. The pain is described as burning, pressing, stitching, the intensity varies from unclear discomfort to unbearable. Anginal pain radiates along the left side of the chest (rarely on the right), into the left arm, neck, and jaw. With an extensive heart attack, pain spreads throughout the chest. The attack has a clearly defined beginning and end, it takes place when the effect of the provoking factor is removed or after taking vasodilator drugs. Angina pain can be accompanied by:

  • Dyspnea. It manifests itself as a reaction to oxygen starvation with each attack. As the disease progresses, shortness of breath can bother the patient even at rest.
  • Dizziness, loss of consciousness.
  • Heart palpitations.
  • Increased sweating. Sweat is usually cold and clammy.
  • Nausea, less often - vomiting, which does not bring relief.

In severe angina attacks and a developing heart attack, an additional sign of ischemia is an unreasonable fear of death, anxiety, anxiety, bordering on panic. It should be noted that types of ischemia with an unusual course may be accompanied by symptoms resembling the clinical manifestations of neurological, gastroenterological and other pathologies.

How to treat coronary heart disease?

In fact, therapy for this disease must necessarily be comprehensive.

Only a doctor selects the means of treating coronary heart disease, since much depends on the general condition of the patient, the presence of other diseases, etc. Sometimes, experts prescribe beta-blockers that help lower blood pressure. Preparations containing nitroglycerin help dilate blood vessels, including coronary arteries. Proper administration of ACE inhibitors improves blood flow. With atherosclerosis, patients are prescribed medications that contain statin, as they help to adjust the level of cholesterol in the blood. Acetylsalicylic acid can be used to prevent thrombosis. In the presence of edema, diuretics are sometimes used.

It is also worth noting that the patient needs to change his lifestyle a little, in particular, to eat right. The restriction of physical activity is also shown. If the severity of coronary disease is small, then patients are recommended feasible loads, for example, swimming, walking, cycling. Such exercises help strengthen blood vessels. But if we are talking about a severe form of the disease and severe shortness of breath, then you will have to give up sports activities and physical activity for a while.

Diagnostics

The initial stage of diagnosis is always an analysis of the medical history, the patient’s life and family history to determine the hereditary predisposition to the development of cardiopathology. During a physical examination, the doctor determines the presence of noise in the heart and lungs, an increase in heart size.

To assess the general condition of the body and identify likely metabolic disorders, carry out:

  • General tests of urine and blood,
  • Blood chemistry,
  • A study for the presence of cardiospecific enzymes,
  • Coagulogram.

The most informative diagnostic methods are instrumental research methods, such as:

  • ECG, stress ECG,
  • Holter daily monitoring,
  • Echocardiography,
  • Coronarography
  • Multispiral CT.

Diagnostic methods are selected individually, depending on the condition of the patient, the proposed diagnosis, treatment tactics and technical capabilities of the clinic.

Treatment of coronary heart disease includes a range of activities. First of all, it is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition and prevent possible complications.

With drug therapy for coronary heart disease, the following drugs are used:

  • Anti-ischemic, in particular calcium antagonists or beta-blockers,
  • ACE inhibitors,
  • Blood cholesterol lowering drugs
  • Antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants to improve blood flow.

In addition, diuretics, antiarrhythmic drugs and vasodilators are prescribed. The patient will have to take some drugs for coronary heart disease for life.

With obviously ineffective conservative treatment, patients are indicated for surgical treatment of ischemia. To restore blood flow in the affected myocardium, the following are performed:

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting,
  • Aterectomy
  • Coronary Angioplasty

In cases of particularly extensive lesions, organ transplantation may be recommended. With aneurysm of the heart, operations are performed to correct the resulting defect.

Patients with any form of coronary heart disease are recommended dietary correction, daily feasible physical exercises, emotional peace.

Proper nutrition for ischemia

Diet for coronary heart disease is extremely important. Doctors recommend that patients adhere to certain rules:

  • It is necessary to sharply limit the amount of salt. In addition, do not recommend drinking too much fluid. This will help relieve stress from the heart muscle.
  • In order to slow the development of atherosclerosis, it is important to limit the amount of foods containing animal fats and cholesterol. The list of banned include lard, fatty meats, butter. Doctors recommend giving up fried, too spicy and smoked foods. Foods that are rich in simple, easily digestible carbohydrates affect health. That is why it is important to limit the amount of sweets, pastries, chocolate and other sweets in the diet.
  • If a patient develops coronary heart disease amid obesity, then it is important to begin the fight against overweight. Of course, you need to lose weight slowly and carefully, since too strict a diet is stressful for the body. Doctors recommend eating properly, doing physical labor (in the absence of contraindications), and maintaining the correct energy balance (energy consumption should be greater than the amount of calories consumed with food by about 300).

Surgical intervention

Unfortunately, in most cases it is difficult to do without surgical intervention, since drug treatment only helps to relieve symptoms and prevent the development of complications.

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting is an operation during which the surgeon takes the patient’s own vessel and hem it to the coronary artery in such a way as to create a workaround for blood flow. The myocardium again begins to receive oxygen and nutrients in sufficient quantities, which leads to the elimination of ischemia.
  • At one time, such a technique as balloon angioplasty was widely used. During the procedure, a special balloon is introduced into the lumen of the vessel, with the help of which the surgeon literally inflates the artery, returning it to its normal size and normalizing the blood flow. Unfortunately, the procedure gives only a temporary effect.
  • Stenting is more effective. The meaning of the operation is the same - to expand the vessel. But during the procedure, a metal mesh frame (stent) is introduced into the lumen of the affected artery - this way the vessel retains its natural shape constantly.

Possible complications

Unfortunately, many patients face a problem such as coronary heart disease. Therapy helps inhibit the development of the disease and prevent the occurrence of complications. But with improper treatment or its absence, the following are possible:

  • insufficiency of energy metabolism of cardiomyocytes,
  • various forms of disorders of contractility of the left ventricle,
  • the development of cardiosclerosis (the number of functioning cardiomyocytes is significantly reduced, they are replaced by connective tissue elements that are not able to contract),
  • violation of the diastolic and systolic function of the myocardium,
  • impaired conduction, contractility and excitability of the myocardium, a partial loss of autoregulation.

Preventive measures and forecasts

It should immediately be said that the prognoses for patients with a similar diagnosis depend on the general condition of the body, the degree of damage to the coronary vessels, and the presence of other diseases. If we are talking about a mild degree of ischemia, then it is quite well amenable to therapy. The prognosis is not so favorable for patients who, along with coronary heart disease, suffer from diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

As for prevention, there are no specific remedies. People at risk should maintain a healthy lifestyle. It is important to eat right, limiting the amount of fatty, fried and too spicy dishes, foods rich in bad cholesterol.

Negatively affects the state of blood vessels smoking. It is important to keep fit by regularly doing all kinds of exercises, such as training in the gym and walking in the fresh air. Patients with hypertension need to constantly monitor blood pressure indicators.

These simple rules will help not only prevent the development of ischemia, but also significantly improve the functioning of the whole organism.

Types and signs of the disease

The disease can occur in various forms, the ICD-10 international protocol has developed the following classification of the disease:

  1. angina pectoris (stable and unstable). This is the most common form of the disease. Stable angina pectoris appears against a background of increased physical activity, and unstable - at rest (precedes the occurrence of a heart attack),
  2. myocardial infarction (primary and secondary). Blood supply is disturbed in the tissues of the heart, which provokes their neurosis. The main danger is that myocardial infarction can cause cardiac arrest,
  3. post-infarction cardiosclerosis. Appears due to myocardial infarction, when the fibers of the heart muscle are replaced by connective tissue. Since the tissue lacks the ability to contract, it is possible to develop chronic heart failure (CHF),
  4. sudden coronary (cardiac) death. If primary cardiac arrest occurred against the background of electrical instability of the heart muscle, then doctors carry out resuscitation measures that can prevent a fatal outcome,
  5. heart failure. It develops due to insufficient enrichment of blood with oxygen.

Consider the symptoms characteristic of coronary heart disease:

  1. The appearance of severe shortness of breath during physical activity or calm movements.
  2. Regular increase in blood pressure (hypertension).
  3. Discomfort in the chest or back.
  4. A feeling of contraction in the heart and a rapid heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  5. Diseases of the nervous system (symptoms of depression, psychosis).
  6. Physical weakness.

The causes of coronary disease

The main reason for the appearance of coronary artery disease is the occurrence of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. However, there are a number of factors contributing to the onset of the disease:

  1. Deficiency in the body of minerals and vitamins.
  2. Genetic predisposition (male gender).
  3. Arterial hypertension.
  4. Gallbladder disease (e.g., cholelithiasis).
  5. Improper lifestyle: the use of tobacco products, an unbalanced diet (an abundance of fats and simple carbohydrates), lack of physical activity.
  6. Frequent stressful situations.
  7. Deviations from the endocrine system (diabetes mellitus of any type, obesity).
  8. Hereditary factor.

Treatment methods

The most common drug treatment of the disease. The doctor prescribes anticoagulants to the patient to minimize the risk of thrombosis. Be sure to use drugs that are responsible for a sufficient level of oxygen in the blood: nitrates, beta-blockers and calcium antagonists. In order to open an alternative bypass blood supply, prostaglandins are prescribed.

For medical treatment, often additionally prescribed techniques such as hirudotherapy and shock wave therapy. Antibiotics are rarely used in the treatment of the disease, although studies have shown the effectiveness of many drugs of this type. Pathogenically, their effectiveness has not been proven, so the method is not included in the standards for the treatment of coronary heart disease.

Alternative methods of treating the disease are effective if they are used with the main methods. Infusions and decoctions are most effective.

Recipes for their preparation:

  1. Take 2 tablespoons of hawthorn fruit and pour 300 ml of boiling water, cover and leave to infuse for 3-4 hours, then filter and use 2 times a day before meals (1-2 tablespoons).
  2. Take 1 tablespoon of dill, pour a glass of hot water and leave to infuse for 2 hours. The resulting infusion helps a person to cope with an attack of angina pectoris.
  3. Mix horseradish with honey in a ratio of 1: 1 (2-3 teaspoons), pour boiling water. Принимать полученный настой можно в течение месяца 1 раз в день перед употреблением пищи.
  4. Берут 1 столовую ложку цветов крапивы и заливают 250 мл кипятка. Полученного отвара хватает на 2 приема в день: перед завтраком и вечером перед сном.

Important! Before treatment with folk remedies, consult a specialist.

In addition to therapeutic treatment methods, there are surgical ones, for example, transmyocardial laser myocardial revascularization (TMLR) or balloon dilatation of vessels. They are resorted to only if the medication does not bring the proper result and the disease continues to progress.

Disease prevention

When diagnosing coronary heart disease, it is important to observe preventive measures:

  1. adhere to the correct lifestyle (minimize or completely abandon the use of alcohol and tobacco products),
  2. avoid stressful situations
  3. consume minerals and vitamins of group E and P,
  4. follow a diet. Proper nutrition is the key to health, it is important to limit the intake of foods that increase blood cholesterol. These include: meat, eggs, caviar, dairy products. At the same time, it is recommended to include as many vegetables, fish and cereals as possible in the diet, since they contribute to the elimination of cholesterol,
  5. to play sports (moderately). It is recommended to carry out physical (aerobic) exercises, since they involve most muscle groups and train the cardiorespiratory system. Loads of this type include swimming, volleyball, brisk walking, aerobics, cycling and skiing.

Compliance with preventive measures for coronary heart disease will prevent the increase in blood pressure and spasms of the coronary arteries, preserve the tone of the heart muscle.

When to see a doctor?

The appearance of the above symptoms of coronary heart disease suggests that a person needs urgent medical advice and a cardiological examination. The specialist will evaluate the patient's condition and prescribe treatment if necessary.

If you suspect a heart attack is starting, call “03” immediately!

If you have high blood pressure or cholesterol, diabetes or obesity and other signs of coronary heart disease, you should consult a doctor. To make an appointment with a cardiologist, click here. You may need an examination to determine your condition, especially if there are signs of vascular damage. Even if coronary heart disease is not proven, treatment aimed at eliminating risk factors is recommended. To stop the progression of the disease and prevent the development of myocardial infarction, early diagnosis of coronary heart disease will help.

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