The most common mistake among beginner soccer players is to focus only on the striking foot. But it should be understood that the supporting leg carries an equally important function, and the strength and accuracy of the impact largely depend on it. The position of the supporting leg relative to the ball determines the type of impact. In a direct hit, it is necessary to put this foot in line with the ball, at a distance of 8-10 cm. If you need to achieve the ball's flight path in height, you should put the supporting foot behind the ball line by 3-5 cm, but still keep a distance of 8 -10 cm in order not to lose control of the ball. In case a low kick is needed, the supporting leg is placed behind the line where the ball is. The main point is not to put your foot too far, the player must find the optimal distance himself.
To effectively hit the ball, you need to remember a few rules. First, the foot should be tense, but not too constrained. Secondly, the toes are pointing down, and the heel, on the contrary, is up. Thirdly, you need to beat either with the toe of the foot, or with the place where the big toe is located.
The power of hitting the ball depends on the correct technique of the player. With a good approach to such an important element of football, a novice athlete will be able to learn how to make decisive hits in the game. The most powerful blow is obtained if you invest in the strength of your thigh muscles. To beat by bending the legs in the knee joint is considered an ineffective technique, which is used in football only by amateurs. Another important point is not to overstrain the muscles of the leg, the blow should be bite, and only in this case the ball will fly swiftly and far.
The body also plays an important role in the technique of hitting the ball. As in the case of the supporting leg, the position of the body depends on which type of blow is necessary. With the desired high flight path of the ball should tilt the body back. At low - go ahead. The main thing is to invest in body weight in impact force.
In order to pass, it is necessary to hit the ball with the inside of the foot. The supporting leg should be located in line with the ball at a distance of 10 cm. With the striking foot, hit the center of the ball, then follow in the desired direction.
Often there are cases when you need to take the ball away from the opponent. In such a situation, you need to beat the outside of the foot. The toe of the supporting leg with the location of the enemy should form an acute angle of 20-30 degrees. Then it remains to strike with the external foot in the right direction.
To consolidate the knowledge gained, of course, practice is needed. Only with experience will mastery of the ball and the technique of a good hit come.
Ball action formation
Ball Retention Technique
The pace of the exercises and the course of the game, which determine the degree of motor activity of children, depend on the level of possession of skills, on successful actions with the ball. The educational and wellness value of the game and exercises with the ball depends on the motor activity of children. Therefore, the main attention should be paid to the technique of holding the ball and performing actions with it.
The formation of the feeling of the ball. In the process of formation of motor skill, an extremely important role belongs to the child’s sensory organs, which direct movements and correct them. When forming actions with the ball, it is necessary for the child to feel the ball as part of his body, to learn how to easily and accurately control it. At first, the ball makes it difficult to act freely, especially to move forward, but gradually the child takes possession of the ball as an instrument, gets used to it, learns to precisely coordinate its movements with the characteristics of the ball.
In the development of the possession of the ball at the first stage of training, a large role belongs to visual analysis. Vision mainly controls and adjusts movements in accordance with their results and the properties of the ball.
As the actions with the ball are formed, the child has their exact sensation, the pressure on the ball and the speed of its rebound are commensurate with the muscular sensation of the ball’s resistance. The child begins to act with him without visual control.
The task of the first stage of training is to develop certain skills in children to handle the ball, feel its properties and make movements in accordance with them. Therefore, at the initial stage of training, it is advisable to give a variety of tasks, as well as stimulate free games with the ball in physical education classes and in independent motor activity, without the goal of developing the technique of these actions.
Children need to be introduced to some properties of the ball, showing that the height of the rebound depends on the force applied to the ball, the throwing distance depends on the weight of the ball, as well as on the force applied to it. Then the teacher offers to play with the ball, throwing it up and down, throwing it from one hand to another, etc. In the exercises, children get used to the ball, learn its qualities, learn to control it. We need to ensure that they enjoy playing with the ball, so that they look forward to the opportunity to play.
The correct retention of the ball is of great importance. The starting position is to hold the ball at chest level with both hands. In this case, the hands should be bent, the elbows down, the hands on the back and side of the ball, the fingers are wide apart, the large ones are directed towards each other, the rest up and forward. Of course, during the game, the child can hold the ball in different ways depending on the game situation and subsequent actions with him: raise him up, lower him down, take him aside so that the opponent could not knock him out.
In the first classes, most children try to catch the ball, clutching it to the chest, clasping it with their hands, standing on straight, rigid and tightly compressed legs. Sometimes a child even stretches his arms bent forward and waits passively for the ball to fall into his arms. If the ball flies above or below the chest level, the children can no longer catch it, because they cannot catch the ball with their hands or cannot take a more convenient position for catching it, moving in a certain direction.
It is necessary to teach children to meet the ball with their hands as early as possible, forming from the fingers as if half of the hollow ball into which the ball should fit. The child monitors the flight of the ball, and as soon as the ball touches the tips of his fingers, he must grab it and pull it towards him with a shock-absorbing movement.
Simultaneously with catching the ball, it is necessary to teach children how to pass it with both hands, first from a place and then in motion. Children should be taught to pass the ball from the correct stance, holding the ball with both hands at chest level. During the transfer, the child should describe the ball with a small arc to the body down on the chest and, while extending the arms forward, send the ball away from you with the active movement of the hand, while unbending the legs. This technique of passing the ball is assimilated by children gradually.
At first, when passing the ball, most children try to push the ball with both hands, spreading their elbows wide apart. But after 2-3 classes, many begin to carry out preparatory movements before passing the ball. At first, it is difficult for children to establish the exact distance to the object to which the ball is to be thrown, and to foresee its flight path, they often throw the ball at the partner’s feet. Gradually, children begin to throw the ball in coordinated movements of both the hands and the whole body.
You should teach how to catch the ball after the children have learned how to stand, hold the ball, and move around the court. First, you should learn to catch the ball with both hands at chest level, using light exercises. The position of the fingers is mastered when catching the ball after bouncing off the floor, from a wall or shield, suspended at the level of the child’s chest, after throwing the ball up and in other exercises. Then, catching the ball is mastered in parallel with passing it with two hands from the chest. Such exercises contribute to this: catching the ball on the spot and handing it over to the partner with two hands, catching on the spot and passing the ball forward, passing with the next step and changing places with the player who received the ball.
Catching and passing the ball are carried out first when walking, then when running. It is necessary to learn how to catch a ball flying towards and from the side, low and high, in place and in motion. The exercises in catching the ball are gradually becoming more complicated, and the direction of the ball varies. In this case, the following exercises are used: passing the ball in pairs, passing in threes, in fours, in a circle. First, the exercises are performed while standing still, then with the transition after their transfer to the place of the ball and, finally, with the transition in the opposite direction from the ball.
In each exercise, children should be given feasible tasks: choose the appropriate method and direction of passing the ball, act depending on the showing of the action or the teacher’s team. When improving the catch and passing of the ball, combinations of these actions with other techniques are widely used - stops, turns, dribbling and throwing the ball.
When learning to transfer the ball with one hand from the shoulder, it is necessary to develop and improve the ability to transfer it with both the right and the left hand.
One of the most important actions with the ball is its dribbling, i.e. moving it around the court, which is provided for by the rules of most sports games. In teaching aids for physical education teachers, an exercise is recommended - beating the ball. However, this action differs from reference in that it does not have a clear implementation technique, children perform it freely, during training, the attention of children is focused only at the height of the ball rebound. Keeping the ball is a more focused action; certain requirements are imposed on its technique.
At the initial stage of training for children of six years of age, dribbling with a high rebound is more accessible, because it does not require a low stance. This technique allows you to learn how to hold your back correctly, not lean toward the ball, and see the area. Then it becomes possible to teach the child to move on bent legs. And finally, he easily learns the dribble with the usual bounce in a straight line, with a change in direction, as well as in the opposition of another player.
When dribbling the ball, children learn to move on slightly bent legs, tilting the body a little forward. The hand leading the ball is bent at the elbow, the brush with the fingers apart is superimposed on the ball from above and away from you. The player performs the jolts of the ball somewhat from his side, evenly, in coordination with the movement.
At the initial stage of the ball dribbling training, many typical mistakes are noted. First of all, children try to hit the ball with a relaxed palm, not including the forearm, or hit the ball with their fingers closed on the ball from above. Many try to drive the ball right in front of them, which prevents them from moving forward, since it is possible to move only in small, frequent and uneven steps. Others try to drive the ball, stretching their tense arm forward and moving in broad strides, as if making lunges. With this method of movement, they hit the ball on the floor 2-3 times at each step. In the vast majority of children, the movements performed are irregular, slow, and constrained. They do not know how to combine the rhythm of arm movement with the rhythm of the legs. Due to irregularity, the ball bounces from the floor to different heights, which most often ends with its loss.
As a result of systematic training in dribbling, children develop the ability to successfully manage it even without visual control, moving with added steps, changing the pace of the ball, the height of the bounce of the ball, the direction of movement, etc. In this case, the movements of the hands with the ball begin to automatically match the rhythm of work legs. The most favorable dribbling rhythm is one in which the child’s two steps have one hit on the floor with the ball. At the same time, the child moves at ease, his step becomes quite wide and free.
The child should understand that it is not necessary to hit the ball, but to direct, push it, the palm should be elastic (and not like a rag), the fingers should be apart, you should look forward (and not at the ball). The ball must be played not directly in front of you, but slightly from the side.
When learning how to handle the ball, it is advisable to first use the preparatory exercises: beating the ball with both hands, beating with the right and left hand in place, dribbling the ball in place with the right and left hand, dribbling in place alternately with the right and left hand, etc., which allow you to master the method of laying on the hand on the ball. The ball is controlled by fingers, a brush and an elbow, while the height and speed of the ball rebound is regulated. The palm of the hand is bent in the form of a cup and does not touch the ball, the fingers are comfortably spread apart, guidance begins with a gentle movement of the hand. When pushing the ball, you must strive to accompany it as long as possible, while maintaining control over it. The child’s attention is drawn to the correct position of the arm and head, to control the ball using lateral vision.
After the child learns to control the ball with both hands quite confidently, you can go on to the movement in the first step, then run. The main attention is paid to the development of a sense of rhythm, the ability to coordinate the movements of the arms and legs. The child learns to perform movements freely, naturally, the ball should not impede running. First, the ball is mastered in a straight line, then with a change in direction, speed of movement and the height of the ball rebound.
Improving the ball, you should introduce the opposition of the conditional opponent. Initially, the counteraction activity can be limited, and subsequently brought closer to the game environment, in order to form the skills of rational and independent use of various ball methods.
Throws the ball into the goal, through the net and into the basket
You can throw the ball in various ways:
- from behind the head with two hands,
- with two hands from below,
- with two hands from the chest,
- with one hand from the shoulder.
The first two methods are used in classes for training in the technique of throwing into the distance, but directly in games with the ball when passing the ball, throwing into the basket, through the volleyball net, hitting the target - wherever the accuracy of the shot is required, the ball is thrown with two hands from the chest and one arm off the shoulder.
In order to develop kinesthetic sensations of throwing the ball along a high path, as well as to create a visual image, its children need to be given exercises in throwing through a highly suspended net (height 1.7–1.8 m). Then you can proceed to throwing the ball into a basketball basket.
Throwing the ball into the basket with two hands from the chest follows from the same starting position as when passing the ball. While holding the ball at chest level, the child should describe to them a small arc down on himself and, straightening his arms up, throw it with the legs straightened. At the same time, brushes and fingers gently push the ball into the basket.
When throwing with one hand from the shoulder from a place, one leg is set half a step forward. The ball is in the palm of the throwing arm bent at the elbow joint and is held by the other hand. Unbending legs while straightening the arms with the ball up and forward, the child with a soft push of the brush directs the ball to the basket.
At the beginning of training, all children throw the ball into the basket, standing on straight, tightly compressed legs. Many not only do not direct the throw of the ball with the movement of the brush, do not aim, but do not even accompany the flight of the ball with their eyes, leave their heads down. Often, children take their elbows to the side. But already in the second or third lesson, they begin to take the correct stance before the throw, accompanying the ball with a look.
Sometimes children do not know how to give the ball the right direction, throw it with a low path or straight up, and they should be taught the correct throw. First, children throw the ball from the place where it is more convenient for them to throw, then from a distance of 1 m, then the distance increases to 2–2.5 m. As a result of repeated actions with the ball, they develop an eye, the ability to assess the path of the ball, accurate determination of the distance and location of objects in space. Children start throwing the ball quickly and accurately.
Overcome by the desire to throw the ball into the basket, children often lose control over the throwing technique during the game. Therefore, first you should give them the opportunity to exercise freely in throws, and subsequently conduct training in a relaxed atmosphere.
Throw training begins after familiarizing yourself with passing the ball, as well as after showing the ball to the goal set on the floor. To master the throws of the ball with the trajectory, it is advisable to use the preparatory exercise - throwing the ball through an obstacle - a rope, bar, net, etc. The height of the target gradually changes.
The teacher informs the children about the basic rules of aiming, explains the significance of the flight path of the ball, its dependence on the force applied to the ball.
To practice throwing the ball, taking into account the trajectory of its flight, you can use various exercise games:
- throws the ball in hoops lying on the floor, located at different distances from the throw,
- throws the ball through the volleyball net with a hit on a specific sector of the field. В зависимости от сектора, на который должен попасть мяч, дуга, описываемая им, может быть раз ной по траектории (вводится понятие крутой и пологой дуги).
Для выработки умения оценивать траекторию полёта мяча и силу броска хорошо подходит упражнение «Ловкий мячик», в котором дети «учат» мячик прыгать.
In the jump over the "hill" a gymnastic bench is used, the height of which can be increased using the Alma modules.
The child must throw the ball so that it hits in front of the bench (“slide”) and jumps over it, then catch the ball, also jumping over the bench (if the height is more than 40 cm, just go around the bench) and return to the starting position.
The distance to the bench can be increased and decreased. Depending on this, the flight path of the ball will be either flatter or steeper.
In the same way, the ball “learns” to jump over the “river” - a path formed by two ropes (you can use the path from blue dermatin with a pattern, for example, with fish). The width of the "river" and the distance to it can also vary.
Game exercises with balls
Game exercise "Train tigers"
The exercise is performed in pairs. One child throws the ball, the other holds the hoop in one hand. "Tiger" (ball) "jumps" into the hoop. A child holding a hoop helps a partner with an inaccurate throw - raises or lowers the hoop.
Game exercise "Chain of hoops"
Option 1. The chain consists of two hoops - small and large, lying one after the other. The child must throw the ball into a small hoop (d - 55 cm) so that it "jumps" into a large one (d - 1 m).
Option 2. Three hoops lie next to each other on the floor - two small (d - 55 cm) and one large (d - 1 m). The ball must be thrown so that it "jumped" in turn, first in one, and then in both of the following hoops.
Option 3. On the floor at a short distance from each other are two small hoops (the distance can be from 50 to 150 cm). The child must throw the ball so that it “jumps” from one hoop to another.
Various targets located at different heights are used to develop accuracy of ball shots. For example, pictures with improvised targets starting from the smallest - the fly agaric, located at a height of 40 cm above the floor, and ending with the highest - a star at a height of three meters.
A ball must be thrown into each target in a certain way:
- with the ball hitting the floor,
- with two hands from below,
- with one hand from the shoulder,
- with two hands from the chest.
When working with targets, it does not specify how to throw the ball, but simply is given the task of working with these or those targets, and the children already perform it on their own. The task of the teacher is to control the correctness of the shots, to mark successes so that the children see that the teacher is watching them, and try to carefully fulfill all his requirements.
At the initial stage of developing ball possession skills, the child’s attention is focused on the quality of each movement, and not on achieving a certain result with this movement. For example, when teaching fishing or passing the ball, you can give the following task: each pair (circle) must make as many passes as possible, without dropping the ball to the ground and not touching the chest with the ball. Such tasks arouse in children a desire to achieve good results and help maintain interest. They meet the goals and objectives of training and education, are accessible and understandable, interesting and emotional, bring actions closer to the game situation. The game environment enhances the interest, activity of children, thanks to repeated repeatability increases the efficiency of the movements performed.
After mastering the basic elements of the studied action, in-depth learning is carried out. At this stage of training, the accuracy of performing movements with the ball is worked out, existing errors are corrected, and the correct feeling of the skill as a whole is formed. Here you can apply the exercise with competition elements aimed at the accuracy of the movement, some outdoor games.
Exercises with elements of competition create a special dynamic and emotional background that stimulates the maximum manifestation of the physical and volitional qualities of the child, contributing to the quick and proper execution of movements with the ball. It is especially important that they help to avoid monotonous work on the technique of action.
Exercises with elements of competition must be carried out in strict sequence in order to ensure the fixing of the correct skill. Therefore, at the beginning of training, the competition is held for the accuracy of performing movements between individual children, and later between groups. After that, you can conduct exercises with competition elements that require not only accuracy, but also the speed of the movements.
By the time of the exercise with elements of the competition, children already have certain skills in handling the ball. Therefore, it is possible to use the simplest individual games in which each child acts with the ball independently of other players, as well as games in which most children act with the ball (for example, "Who is the driver"). They contribute to the formation of ball possession skills to a greater extent than games in which the whole group plays with one ball. Games of this nature increase the motor activity of children, especially increase the number of actions with the ball.
It should be noted that the gradual complication of exercises and ball games, the creation of new, diverse conditions for dealing with it provide the rapid formation of a wide range of ball possession skills. A correct, clear demonstration of actions with the ball, accompanied by a brief explanation that is accessible to the child, helps to create correct and accurate representations of movements, makes you want to perform them.
At different stages of training, the ratio of display and explanation techniques changes. For example, at the initial stage of the formation of the ball, when general ideas about actions with the ball are formed, the leading role is played by the show, which must be supported by explanations. Therefore, at the beginning of the ball transfer training, it is advisable to repeatedly demonstrate it at the highest possible level. This creates in children a general idea of the action being studied with the ball.
The basketball player’s stance, movement on the court, stops, dribbling, throwing into the basket and other actions the teacher himself shows the children. And such actions as passing and catching the ball can be shown by the children who have mastered them most well. The teacher emphasizes what you need to pay attention to.
A little later, we should proceed to the demonstration of passing the ball in combination with an explanation, directing the attention of children to more important moments of the action: to the starting position, and then to the throw. At the stage of improving the transfer of the ball in exercises and games, the explanation is given in the form of brief instructions: “Pass the ball with your hands”, “Pass the ball at the level of the partner’s chest”, “Lower your elbows down”, etc.
One of the important points in learning is the practical implementation by the children of the movements following the teacher. The whole set of exercises for warming up is built on this principle.
The teacher shows the exercises and tasks here many times, since few of the children can perform these exercises after the show. Only after some time can you connect more successful children to the show.
When performing training tasks, their conscious implementation is necessary. A conscious attitude to actions with the ball occurs in children only if the teacher explains their meaning in various situations, explains why they should be performed in this way. The child should know why in a particular gaming environment it is more advisable to apply certain actions, perform them in a certain way, at a certain speed and in a certain direction. For example, children need to be explained that the ball in the game “Ball to the captain” should be played only if you cannot pass it to a partner, when the defender approaches, it is safer to move the ball with his farthest hand and with a low rebound, etc.
For a child’s conscious attitude to actions with the ball, it is necessary, after clarification and showing, to give him the opportunity to exercise, act, and actively apply the knowledge gained in playing activities. For example, after explaining that the height of the bounce of the ball depends on the force applied, the child must be given the following information: offer to hit the ball by changing the height of the bounce. Only with a combination of the explanation of the technique of action with the display and exercises of children in actions with the ball does the ability to use them in games play be formed.
The teacher seeks to bring to the awareness of children that everyone can achieve great results if they play honestly, observing all the rules. He notes the guys who help their teammates, sometimes praising the less dexterous, weak guys, if they persisted, they perform the actions correctly.
In ball games, children should develop the habit of subordinating personal impulses and interests to the general goals of the game. In team games, children are taught, achieving high personal results, to take care of the team result, showing such qualities as camaraderie, mutual assistance, friendly attitude towards each other.
For example, in relay games, the result of each participant depends on the result of the team. Such dependence in the game on each other is difficult enough for children, it disciplines them, fosters endurance, attention, a sense of responsibility and duty to the team. In such games, the child is mobilized, directing efforts to achieve better results, the failures of one child are compensated by the even greater zeal of others, providing the opportunity to help the team out.
The additional burden on children who are well versed in the movement activates them even more and provides prerequisites for the further improvement of motor skills, and develops support and mutual assistance in the team.