Kohlrabi cabbage is one of the varieties of cabbage. Its main feature is a round root crop. In the article, we will consider how kohlrabi cabbage should be grown in the soil, planting dates, and basic rules that will allow you to get a good harvest.
Features of growing kohlrabi cabbage
Kohlrabi cabbage looks like a turnip. But to taste, it resembles a white cabbage, but at the same time it is more juicy. The color scheme of this variety of cabbage is different:
- pale green
- pink (or purple).
Depending on the variety, the shape is round or slightly flattened, and the mass is from 200 g to 1 kg.
Kohlrabi, the cultivation of which is similar to a wound of white cabbage, gives a cabbage crop several times during the season. But it is not stored for a long time, so you need to eat it as soon as possible.
There are two ways to grow kohlrabi cabbage:
- through planting seeds in open ground,
- using seedlings.
You can plant kohlrabi cabbage with seedlings - this will allow you to get an early harvest. Usually it is grown in greenhouses, greenhouses, boxes and on window sills.
It is better to grow kohlrabi cabbage seedlings on window sills. This is perhaps the most suitable place in modern apartments and houses. Stem crops in this case can be obtained in late spring - early summer.
The agricultural technology of this vegetable involves the preparation of seeds before planting. This will protect the plant from diseases that affect this variety of cabbage.
Seeds are placed in a tissue napkin, after which they are kept in hot water for about half an hour. Fluid temperature should be around 50º. After that, the seeds are cooled in cold water for 10-15 minutes. Then the cabbage seeds should swell. To do this, they are left for 12-15 hours at room temperature.
Then the seeds need to be placed in the refrigerator, or in another cool place. That they were loose, and it was convenient to plant them, it should be dried. This completes the seed preparation before planting.
Sowing and care
Planted seeds for seedlings are usually experienced gardeners planted around mid-March, at 15-20 numbers. But before planting seedlings in the soil, it must be prepared. For example, the earth must be decontaminated with a solution of potassium permanganate, which will allow the prevention of many diseases.
The cultivation of kohlrabi implies the observance of several rules:
- Be sure to pay attention to the amount of light in the apartment. The optimal daylight hours lasted about 13-15 hours a day. For these purposes, a conventional fluorescent lamp is suitable.
- Watering is necessary as the soil dries up: it does not need to be dried out, but giving it too much moisture is also not recommended.
- After each watering, it is imperative to loosen the soil.
- Until seedlings appear, the room temperature should be from 19 to 20º.
Kohlrabi is a biennial from the Cruciferous family. The main feature of the plant is that its stem develops faster than a head of cabbage. Its lower part thickens, acquiring a spherical shape. It is he who is eaten.
To taste, the stemblender resembles a cabbage stump, but it has more juice and sweetness. It can be painted in different shades - beige, green and even purple, depending on variety. Kohlrabi leaves are oval, dark green, grow in the upper part of the stem on long stalks. The culture develops well in regions with a cool climate.
Reference. The leaves of kohlrabi cabbage are also edible, they are added to salads, used in cooking soups and for preparing fritters.
Transplant to the garden
Do not forget to water the plants
Kohlrabi cabbage is planted shallowly - exactly as she sat in the nursery. If it is planted a little deeper in the soil, then this will significantly complicate the formation of stem-beetle, which will affect the quality of the crop. When planting seedlings in the soil, it is important to remember that young plants withstand frosts down to -3º.
Seeding arrangement of kohlrabi cabbage: too tight planting inhibits seedling growth, which again negatively affects the future harvest. In this case, the cabbage does not receive the necessary amount of light and air, which does not allow to obtain tender turnips. The optimal area for good nutrition of seedlings is 25 by 25 cm.
When seedlings are planted in the soil, it is important to monitor its watering. As practice shows, the stems of cabbage begin to form after the appearance of eight leaves. It is during this period that the vegetable begins to consume a lot of moisture. Therefore, the gardener must produce uniform watering of cabbage. After all, a lack of moisture will lead to drying out of the soil, which means that the turnip can crack. This will significantly impair its taste.
Vegetable recommended for diet. It is included in the children's menu as a source of vitamins and minerals. Kohlrabi strengthens the immune system, fights vitamin deficiencies, improves the functioning of the nervous system. The product contains substances that inhibit the development of cancer cells.
Kohlrabi cabbage in large quantities contains vitamins of group B, C, A, PP, K. It is a source of iron, phosphorus, sulfur, zinc, selenium. With regular use in food, a vegetable crop will help:
- get rid of inflammatory processes in the throat and oral cavity,
- reduce weight
- improve blood composition.
Attention! People suffering from stomach ulcers or gastritis, accompanied by high acidity, are not recommended to include kohlrabi cabbage in the diet.
It is better to start growing kohlrabi from seeds in the middle of winter.
Sowing seeds is used for late harvest. Plant seeds in the open ground of a greenhouse or greenhouse. The technique for growing kohlrabi from seeds on open ground is almost the same as growing its seedlings at home. Crops should be insulated with a covering material.
Vegetable culture differs in the ripening period of stem stems. Early varieties are not stored for a long time, they are used for food shortly after harvesting. Mid-late and late-ripening hybrids, subject to storage conditions, can lie for several months. Among Russian summer residents, such varieties of kohlrabi cabbage are popular:
- Moravia. An early ripe hybrid created by Czech breeders. It has a light green stembled with an average weight of 1.8–2 kg. The flesh is milky, tender, juicy, sweetish.
- Piquant. Also applies to early hybrids. The weight of the fruit is 1–1.2 kg, the pulp is white, juicy, tastes good.
- Vienna violet. An early ripe variety, differs from the previous ones in the red-violet color of the stems.
- Giant. Belongs to late hybrids. The weight of the fetus reaches 5 kg. The cabbage inside is white, contains a lot of juice, the taste is pleasant.
- Violetta. Late-ripe frost-resistant variety of kohlrabi cabbage with purple stem stem. Inside the flesh is milky white. The average weight is 1 kg.
The soil in the country should be fertile. Also, the place should be well lit. Be sure to fertilize the soil before planting with a tincture of fresh manure. Just mix it with several liters of water and leave to insist for 5-7 days.
Putting fresh manure on the ground is not recommended, as this increases the risk of infecting the fruit with parasitic insects.
Kohlrabi is best planted after onions, cucumbers or zucchini.
It is necessary to plant in the early period, before planting tomatoes, vegetable beans and other vegetable crops. Because it will create a shadow, this will preserve tomatoes, tomatoes or beans that have not yet matured. And when they get older, get stronger and grow up, kohlrabi will be removed.
When is it better to sow seeds for seedlings?
Gardeners from the middle strip should correctly determine the time of the start of sowing work. Kohlrabi seedlings are usually planted in open ground at the age of 6 weeks. Based on this and calculate the time of sowing. At the end of May, night frosts are unlikely, which means that seedlings can be transferred to the garden. Therefore, sowing work should be carried out in mid-March.
How to plant
If you want to once again protect kohlrabi from insect pests, experienced gardeners and farmers are advised to do the following. Just plant kohlrabi seedlings next to herbs such as basil or hyssop. In the prevention and control of diseases and pests will help and perennial onions. And in principle, any neighborhood in the garden with fragrant herbs will be appreciated by kohlrabi cabbage.
A distance of 20-25 cm between the plants and about 30-35 cm between the rows is sufficient. This type of cabbage does not need to be planted too deep in the soil, as the fruit will form on the stem.
Good care will increase crop yields.
This issue is no less important than planting kohlrabi in the ground. After all, what will be the harvest depends on the care of the plant.
Conditions and recommendations for care after planting Kohlrabi in open ground:
- About 5-7 days after the seedlings are planted in a permanent place (open ground), it must be fertilized with nitrogen fertilizer. Who does not know, such top dressing will increase the growth of fruits, make the roots of the plant stronger, improve the taste of the vegetable.
- After about 3 weeks, top dressing with fermented organics.
- Saturate the soil with a solution of superphosphate and potassium. It is very important to comply with the indicated dates of the feeding.
- Another condition is that once every 3 days the plants must be carefully watered. Especially in watering kohlrabi needs the process of formation of the stems. But do not pour too much water. This can cause root rot.
- Regularly saturate the soil with oxygen, i.e. carry out its loosening.
- Conduct disease prevention and pest control.
Presowing seed treatment and preparation of the substrate
Planting material must be disinfected, otherwise the seedlings will become ill. To do this, the seeds for a quarter of an hour are sent to hot water with a temperature of 50 degrees, after which they are immediately cooled. Then they are dipped for half an hour in a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate. You can use Fitosporin. The third stage of preparation of planting material involves its processing with Epin or Zircon, growth stimulants. This will contribute to good germination. Next, the seeds are placed in wet gauze and kept for 12 hours in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator.
The soil for growing seedlings also needs to be prepared. It consists of the following components:
Such a mixture will be nutritious, but at the same time light and porous. Some gardeners use peat as one of the components, but this is not entirely correct, since it acidifies the soil, and cabbage does not grow well in an acidic environment. All components mix well. A couple of handfuls of wood ash are added to a bucket of prepared soil. Now the mixture needs to be disinfected, because it may contain harmful microorganisms. The soil is calcined in an oven at a temperature of 200 degrees or spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Tips from experienced gardeners
And now a few simple, but very important tips for growing such a vegetable as kohlrabi cabbage:
- To get a crop at the beginning of summer, it is best to grow several varieties with different degrees of ripening in the garden.
- Before doing sowing seedlings in open ground, harden for 2-3 days. This is best done on the balcony when the air temperature reaches above 10º heat. First open the windows a little bit, gradually reducing the air temperature. This will allow plants to get used to the cool ambient temperature.
- If you want to grow kohlrabi in your garden, but you do not have enough space, then you can plant it with lettuce or cucumbers. This will favorably affect the quality of the crop.
- Harvesting is possible only when the stemblender reaches a diameter of about 7-8 cm. Do not let the vegetable over-ripen; this significantly worsens the taste.
- The gardener must remember that in later varieties of kohlrabi, the stembled is less susceptible to the process of woodiness.
- Plant cabbage along with fragrant herbs (basil, parsley, perennial onions). This will favorably affect the quality of the crop.
- If you want to store the crop, then the vegetable must be taken along with the roots.
Sowing seeds for seedlings: detailed instructions
Sowing seeds is best immediately in separate containers made from peat. Cups are chosen small - with a diameter of about 6 cm. Filling them with a moistened substrate, 1 seed is placed at a depth of 1 cm. The surface is slightly crushed by the soil. The containers are covered with a film and left at a temperature of +20 degrees. After 2-4 days, the first shoots should appear. At this point, the film needs to be removed, and the cups placed in a cool room with good lighting. The favorable temperature for growing kohlrabi seedlings is + 13 ... + 15 degrees during the day, and + 8 ... + 10 degrees at night.
Attention! Seedlings should receive a lot of light, otherwise they will stretch out, but they need to be protected from direct sunlight in the afternoon hours.
The best varieties
The giant is resistant to heat and drought, so it feels great in the southern regions of our country. It has a juicy white flesh. The fruit itself can reach a weight of up to 5-6 kg.
Late variety, it is resistant to frosty weather and can grow to a mass of 1-1.5 kg.
The Moravia variety was bred in the Czech Republic. It has juicy pulp, and the fruit itself can reach a mass of up to 2-2.5 kg.
The weight of the Athena variety is from 3 to 3.5 kilograms. Their pulp is about the same: juicy and tender. Such cabbage makes excellent salads.
Viennese has a purple hue, the mass of the stem is small - about 1 kg. Despite its good taste, this variety is not stored for a long time and is suitable for fresh consumption immediately after harvest.
Description and photos of kohlrabi cabbage
Outwardly, the stemblender resembles a turnip, similar in taste to a stalk from white cabbage. But much more tender and juicier. It is important to harvest in time, without waiting for the overripe and coarsening of the fibers. Kohlrabi cabbage is most often of different colors: pale green, yellow, purple, pink. The flesh of the stem is always white or light beige. The shape of the stembled, depending on the variety, can be round, oblong or flattened, like a turnip. The size of the vegetable can vary from 0.2 to 1 kg. In the photo, kohlrabi cabbage of different varieties.
Early varieties of kohlrabi cabbage allow you to get a crop several times a season, but they are unsuitable for long-term storage and require immediate processing. Late varieties, with a competent approach, can please their taste all winter. To do this, the stems are sprinkled with moistened sand and placed in the basement.
Do I need a pick?
Those who sow kohlrabi in individual cups will not have to dive seedlings. Seedlings will grow in them until transplanted into the open ground. If the gardener used a seedling box, a week after the emergence of the seedlings, the plants need to be peaked, thereby increasing the nutrition area for each of them.
From the total mass of young plants, the most promising ones with a well-developed stem and cotyledons are selected. Each instance is carefully dug up with a lump of substrate and transplanted into separate containers. After a dive, the soil is moistened with a spray.
Caring for kohlrabi seedlings
Young plants need careful care. They are still too weak, so they can die due to adverse conditions:
- sudden temperature changes,
- waterlogging of the soil,
- lack of moisture
- bright sunshine.
It is important to ensure that the correct temperature is constantly maintained in the room. The problem of poor lighting can be solved by fixing a fluorescent lamp over seedlings. Seedlings are watered only from the sprayer as the surface layer of the soil dries. Waterlogging should not be allowed, otherwise the plants will become ill with a black leg. The first top dressing is done after the appearance of two true leaves. During this period, a mineral complex is used.
Shortly before transplanting seedlings to the garden, it is hardened. This measure is aimed at increasing the stability of the culture's immunity. Glasses with plants are taken out every day. In the first days for a short time - by 20-30 minutes, then the time spent in the air is increased.
Cultivation of kohlrabi cabbage in the open field will be successful if the time for transplanting seedlings to the bed is correctly selected. It is important to wait until 5-6 true leaflets are formed on the plants. By this moment they reach the age of 5-6 weeks. Weather conditions should be taken into account - at night, the thermometer should not fall below zero, otherwise the plants may die.
Attention! Residents of the middle strip planted seedlings in the garden by mid-May. If you need to do this earlier, landings at night are covered with a film.
Success in growing kohlrabi in the open field depends on whether the summer resident complies with crop rotation rules. The culture is not planted in the garden, where related plants used to grow:
The best predecessors of kohlrabi are tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, legumes, potatoes and carrots. The bed should be prepared for planting in the fall. When digging the soil, organic and mineral substances must be added. Если почва на участке кислая, проводят процедуру известкования. На каждый 1 м2 вносят от 1 до 4 кг извести, в зависимости от степени кислотности. Весной грунт разрыхляют и разравнивают.
Схема расположения лунок отличается:
- для ранних сортов – 40х60 см,
- для среднеспелых – 50х70 см,
- for later - 60x70 cm.
Superphosphate is required to be added to each well - 40 g, 10 g of urea, 2 glasses of ash. All fertilizers are mixed with the ground and spilled abundantly. Peat cups with seedlings are placed directly in the slurry and added. The ground under each bush is crushed by stove ash to scare insects.
Attention! Transplanting seedlings to the beds is best done in the evening, when solar activity decreases.
Outdoor kohlrabi cabbage care
In the first 5–6 days after transplanting, plants are watered every other day, but little by little. During adaptation, seedlings are shaded at noon from the hot rays of the sun. Caring for this variety of cabbage is not fraught with difficulties. The main thing is to organize high-quality watering, monitor the cleanliness of the beds and feed cabbage.
Like other cabbage species, kohlrabi needs regular watering. It is produced once a week. Humidification of the soil becomes more frequent during extreme heat and drought, when water evaporates quickly. The day after watering, the soil under the bushes is loosened. This is very important - the root system develops better if oxygen is supplied to it in sufficient quantities.
Weed herbs pose a serious danger to cultivated plants. They draw from the soil the nutrients necessary for the development of the fruit. In addition, weeds attract pests. To prevent their attack, you need to remove wild grass from the beds. This procedure is usually combined with loosening the soil after irrigation.
On poor soil, kohlrabi cabbage gives stiff fruits and grows worse, so it needs to be fed. 2 weeks after planting in the soil, the seedlings are fertilized with a solution of chicken droppings - 500 g of raw materials are dissolved in 10 l of water, insisted for 4 days in a warm place. Before use, the product is diluted with water 1: 5. Under each bush, half a liter of nutrient fluid is poured.
During the second top dressing, which is carried out 15 days after the previous one, a solution of rotted manure is used. Raw materials are poured with water in a ratio of 1: 1, insisted for at least 3 days, then diluted 1: 5 with ordinary water. For each plant, spend 1 liter of liquid.
The third top dressing is needed to build the stem stalk. It is carried out 2.5 weeks after the second. At this stage, a complex of mineral fertilizers is used. Later varieties of kohlrabi can be fertilized 4 times per season. The last time they are fed 2 weeks before the time of harvest, using potassium sulfate, it improves the fruit life.
Attention! At the end of the growing season, you can not make fertilizers with nitrogen. This leads to the development of rot and bacteriosis.
Processing kohlrabi from pests and diseases
Diseases and pests of kohlrabi cabbage are closely related to each other. The attack of insects is often accompanied by infection of the culture with bacterial and fungal infections, so it is important to try to protect plants from uninvited guests.
The culture is attacked by pests:
- cruciferous fleas and bugs,
- cabbage flies
- little bear.
Gardeners know that it is difficult to fight insects, it is much easier to pay attention to preventive measures. To protect them from pests, they scatter wood ash mixed with pepper in the beds, lay wormwood twigs under the plants, and spray the cabbage itself with a soap-ash or vinegar solution.
Obstacles are built from slugs around cabbage beds. These soft-bodied pests can not overcome the obstacle course of coarse sand, brick chips, shells or sawdust. If mollusks and other living creatures nevertheless entered the garden and eat kohlrabi cabbage, plantings can be treated with biological insecticides. They are relatively safe, unlike chemicals. These include - Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocide, etc. Spraying is carried out 2-3 times with an interval of 1 week.
Attention! With the ineffectiveness of biological agents against pests, they resort to chemical insecticides. These include - Decis, Spark, Karate, Aktara, Actellik. It is important to remember that they are long removed from plant cells. They can not be used if less than 28 days remain before harvesting.
Common diseases of kohlrabi cabbage:
- bacteriosis (mucous, vascular),
- black spotting
- downy mildew,
Some diseases can not be treated, so it is important to regularly examine the beds, noting the condition of the plants. Sick cultures lose turgor, turn yellow, become covered with light, dark and gray spots. It is better to dig and burn infected specimens so that the disease does not spread to other bushes.
Preventive measures against cabbage diseases:
- crop rotation
- harvesting weeds from beds in the fall,
- deep digging of the garden and making lime,
- presowing treatment of seeds and soil for seedlings,
- plant nutrition
- pest control.
Harvesting and storage
Later varieties of kohlrabi are harvested in October. It is important not to overexpose the stems in the garden, otherwise they will lose in quality - they will become stiff and tasteless. The average diameter of a ripe fruit is 9–12 cm. Harvest is best harvested in dry, clear weather.
Armed with a shovel, gardeners dig kohlrabi along with the rhizome, trying not to damage the stems. Then the cabbage is slightly dried, cleaned of soil residues and cleaned in the basement.
Kohlrabi is well kept in a box with sand, where it is placed root down. Between the fruits leave free space. The optimum temperature for long-term storage of vegetables in the cellar is 0 ... + 4 degrees, humidity - 95%.
Reference. Violet varieties are distinguished by the best indicators of keeping quality. Under the right conditions, they lie for 6 to 8 months.
Growing kohlrabi cabbage, it is important to follow the rules of agricultural technology. This culture is demanding on the composition of the soil. It grows well on nutritious soil with a neutral reaction. It is very important to adhere to the recommendations on crop rotation, the health of seedlings depends on this. Otherwise, this plant is not too capricious, it only needs regular watering, top dressing and protection from pests.
Growing kohlrabi cabbage from seeds for seedlings
To get an early harvest, seedlings are grown on window sills. This method allows you to get stems from the beginning of summer. Cultivation of kohlrabi cabbage from seeds for seedlings is carried out in mid-March. It is important to prepare planting material in order to reduce the risk of diseases such as powdery mildew, black leg, and various fungal infections.
How to process planting material:
- It is necessary to place the seeds in a tissue and hold for half an hour in hot water 50-60 degrees.
- Cool for 10 minutes in cold water.
- Leave for 12 hours to swell seeds at room temperature.
- Put for a day in the refrigerator.
- For flowability, the seeds can be dried a little by holding it in the air.
Sowing is carried out in a pre-prepared soil, consisting of sand and sod land in a ratio of 1: 1. You can add a little humus and ash. For disinfection, the soil is shed with a solution of manganese (1 g. Per 10 liters of water). You can grow kohlrabi cabbage from seed for seedlings immediately in individual cups or in drawers with subsequent picking. The second method is better, since it allows you to get stronger and stronger plants.
For sowing in the soil, grooves are cut at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. Seeds are laid to a depth of 1 cm, the distance between them is maintained 1-2 cm. Sprinkle on top with loose earth and remove the box on the windowsill. When the seedlings appear, it is necessary to remove the seedlings in a cooler place with a temperature of 10-15 degrees for several days to prevent the plants from stretching. After 2 weeks, you can start diving into individual cups. Stebleplod can be grown both in greenhouses and in open ground.
How to grow kohlrabi cabbage in the open ground?
For a later harvest, sowing can be done directly in the soil or in hotbeds-hotbeds. The pick in this case is carried out immediately to a permanent place. The technology of how to grow kohlrabi cabbage in open ground for seedlings is no different from the method on the windowsill. Despite the fact that kohlrabi tolerates frost well, it is recommended to cover plants with non-woven material at night when planting early.
For planting kohlrabi cabbage seedlings, well-lit places with fertile, light soil are suitable. Good predecessors: legumes, potatoes, tomatoes, onions. To avoid diseases and pests, do not plant seedlings after other cruciferous plants. Before planting in the soil, you can make manure compost. Fresh manure is not recommended, as it increases the risk of hitting a fly.
For early varieties, a distance between rows of 30 cm is enough, and between plants 25. For mid-season and late 40 and 30, respectively. Unlike other types of cabbage, this one does not need to be deepened, since the fruit is formed on the stem.
Valuable Kohlrabi Growing Tips
Many gardeners hesitate to grow kohlrabi and still consider it an overseas vegetable. In fact, agricultural technology is simple and this type of cabbage grows well in our climatic conditions.
Tips for growing kohlrabi:
- In order to eat from the beginning of summer until the very frosts, several varieties of different maturity must be planted. The later ones will be well preserved until February.
- Before planting home seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to conduct hardening for several days.
- If there is not enough space under the bed of kohlrabi, then it can be planted between other crops as a sealant. She gets along well with almost all the neighbors.
- Harvesting is best done earlier, avoiding overriding. Once the stemblender reaches 7 cm in diameter, it can be eaten.
- Late cultivars are less prone to stonewood stiffening.
- For storage, the crop is harvested and laid with the root.
These simple tips for growing kohlrabi will facilitate the process and help you get a good harvest of juicy stems.
Latin kohlrabi in Latin Brassica oleracea var. gongyoides, in German it sounds like kohlrabi - cabbage turnip, in Italian cavolo rapa - cabbage turnip. In general, the meaning is clear by its name - the edible part of this cabbage is stembled, which is formed in a two-year-old vegetable in the first year of life. The leaves are big-leafed and large, but suitable only for rabbits and compost. Flowering occurs in the second year of life, but the gardener and gardener does not observe this, we need to quickly harvest. The homeland of turnip cabbage is the eastern Mediterranean.
Kohlrabi is a valuable vegetable, a champion among cabbage in terms of vitamin C content, behaves very well in culinary processing - it is added to soups and salads, you can stew with meat and even make a dessert.
Kohlrabi place in the garden
Kohlrabi is less demanding than other cabbage for heat and soil nutrition. Therefore, it is used in any garden as a bed compactor - early varieties of kohlrabi can be planted with late-ripening varieties of white cabbage, tomatoes, and cucumbers. And you can plant a leafy greens (spinach, onions on a feather, salads) as a second culture.
Kohlrabi in the crop rotation
In the alternation of crops on the beds, carrots, potatoes, onions, legumes, grains, cucumbers, as well as siderat herbs will be good precursors to kohlrabi.
It is undesirable to plant after any types of cabbage, beets, tomatoes, turnips, radishes, radishes.
In a general crop rotation, kohlrabi should not return to their previous beds earlier than after 4 seasons.
What loves kohlrabi
- Soil acidity 6.5-7.4
- Good soil fertility (light loam)
- Bright sunny place
- Hilling after transplanting
- Heavy watering
- Aisle cultivation
- Root and foliar top dressing
- Timely Pest Management
Kohlrabi is great for central Russia, because it prefers moderate temperatures and even some coolness, the optimum temperature for growth is 18-24 ° C, but it doesn’t like heat when it is above 30 ° C, growth is inhibited, and the stems are small.
All cabbage cultivation may be in jeopardy if you have acidic soils - the keel of cabbage destroys all its species, therefore, soils with acidity below 6.8-6.5 must always be lime.
Early ripe varieties are grown in seedlings, and late ripening, which takes more than 100-120 days to mature, are sown directly in open ground.
Preparation of seeds for sowing: soak the seeds for 15-20 minutes in hot water (53-55 ° C), then soak in a solution of the drug "Narcissus" diluted at the rate of 5 ml per 1 liter of water. This drug has a growth-promoting, immunomodulating, adaptogenic, fungicidal and nematicidal effect.
Sowing is carried out in the first decade of March. Soil: a mixture of universal peat, turf soil and coarse sand in equal parts. It is advisable to sterilize the soil in the oven, and with large volumes of plantings by irrigation with potassium permanganate.
Seed up to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. It is important to maintain a moderate temperature - not higher than 20 ° C. As soon as the seedlings appear, to strengthen the seedlings, you need to lower the temperature to 10 ° C per week, while watering is very moderate, so that the soil is moist, but not very wet, and does not dry out completely. After a week, you need to put the kohlrabi seedlings back in place with a moderate temperature of 18-20 ° C.
Maintaining moderate soil moisture is the most important thing in growing seedlings in cool conditions, at this temperature watering is rare, from a spray bottle.
Dive kohlrabi when one real leaf grows - we plant in separate pots or cups 6-8 cm in diameter, sprinkling with earth to cotyledon leaves.
The first week after a dive, the pots should be left in the same conditions that they grew. When 2 leaflets develop on the plants, you can apply spraying with a complex fertilizer for vegetables, it is desirable that it contains a rich set of micro and macro elements.
2 weeks before the seedlings are planted in the soil, seedlings should be hardened: accustomed to the brighter sun and temperature fluctuations - during the day 17-18 ° C during the day, at night 9-10 ° C.
In the care of seedlings, good lighting is also important. Kohlrabi is a plant of a long day, a long period of illumination accelerates the growth of seedlings, if the weather is very cloudy, the stalks stretch out or lean towards the glass - then you need to put light on.
Planting seedlings in open ground
In early May, Kohlrabi at the age of 30-40 days moves from the window sills of rooms and the balcony to a permanent place in the garden. By this time, 3-4 true leaves should form in each bush.
The distance between the rows when planting kohlrabi is 60 cm, and between the holes - 20 cm. The depth of planting is the same or slightly lower than in pots with seedlings. Planted bushes need to be watered and mulched with straw. Shade for 2 days from the sun.
Growing Kohlrabi from seeds
Late-ripening kohlrabi varieties are not grown in seedlings, but sown directly in open ground in the middle, until early June. It is advisable to carry out crops on beds with carrots or onions. On individual beds, the distance between the bushes is calculated 60 cm between the rows and 30 cm between the bushes.
Before planting, you need to make humus, or compost, but not fresh manure. Mix a handful of humus for each well with the ground.
In May, kohlrabi takes root well, does not suffer from heat, but after seed germination, it is necessary to thin out crops in a timely manner.
When to harvest
The most delicious, soft and juicy are the fruits of only six to eight centimeters in diameter. But, of course, it’s still a pity to cut off such kids, but the maximum that can be allowed is to grow up to 9-10 cm in diameter. Further cultivation leads to lignification of the stems, and it is impossible to eat wood.
Do not try to navigate by the color of the stem stalk, it does not determine its maturity. But the sizes indicated on the package with seeds are a good guide, because there are varieties of medium size stem-tubers (350-500 g) and large varieties (up to 2 kg).
Varieties of kohlrabi
Kohlrabi differ in different grades in the shape of a stoker: round, spatially rounded or ovoid, and in color: from cream or white-green to purple (in shades). The flesh, even in colored stems, is white.
All varieties are conditionally divided into early ripe (usually, but not necessarily, white) and late, usually purple. Early white varieties are much tastier and juicier, but it is worth delaying the harvest for a day or two or not at the right time to water, and they outgrow or lose their taste - they become fibrous and unfit for food. Autumn fruits grow larger, with less growth, but they have less sugar content and more dietary fiber.
- Hybrid Hummingbird F1 - precocious (70 days), high palatability, poor keeping quality, relatively drought-resistant, medium growth resistance.
- Viennese white 1350 (Aelita breeding) - fast-ripening (65-75 days), heat-resistant and drought-resistant, severely affected by cabbage keel, palatability good, prone to grow quickly (rude), poor keeping quality.
- Виталина ('Евро-семена') – раннеспелый, стеблеплод округлый, темно-фиолетовый, массой 400-430 г, хорошие вкусовые качества, не для хранения, склонен израстаться.
- Венская синяя — скороспелая (70-75 дней), жаростойкая и засухоустойчивая, сильно поражается капустной килой, вкусовые качества хорошие, устойчивость к израстанию средняя, лёжкость средняя.
- Задумка ('Евро-семена') – раннеспелый, стеблеплод светло-зеленый, массой 750-900 г, вкус хороший и отличный. Не для хранения, склонен к израстанию.
- Moravia is a Czech variety, a very early variety of very high palatability, fairly cold-resistant, but poor keeping quality, prone to overgrowth.
- Early Knaufa - very early ripening, good taste, fairly cold-resistant, medium keeping quality, prone to overgrowth.
- Relish is an early-ripening variety, dark purple with high taste, not stored at all, the tendency to grow is average.
- Pikant ('Agrofirm' Zedek ') - early ripe, white-green stembled, weighing 500-900 g, excellent taste, resistant to growth (lignification).
Mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties
- Atena - early, 130 days, for fresh use and processing, rounded staple crop weighing 180-220 g, good taste.
- Giant - of Czech selection, characterized by the size of the fruit - up to 6 kg, an average diameter of 15-20 cm, with excellent taste, drought-resistant, not prone to grow, sings for about 100 days, well stored.
- Eder F1 - high palatability, white-green stem blot, weighing up to 400 g, is resistant to growth (lignification), not for storage.
- Goliath white - large light green stalks of medium taste, but keeping quality is good, the variety is drought tolerant and resistant to overgrowth.
- Violetta is a Czech variety (ripening time 100-110 days), medium sized stembled, with a diameter of 6-9 cm, weighing 1.5-2.0 kg, frost-resistant, almost not stored.
- Gulliver (Agrofirm Search) - mid-season, stembled gray-green, up to 1.5 kg, excellent taste, not for storage, prone to overgrowth.
- Karatago F1 is a hybrid of Czech selection, medium-fruited, of excellent palatability, not inclined to grow, average stubbornness.
- Kossak F1 - late-ripening, stembled yellowish-green, weighing 400-760 g, excellent taste, not for storage.
- Madonna ('Agrofirm Search') - mid-season, stembled light purple, weighing up to 1.3 kg, good taste.
You need to store kohlrabi cabbage in the basement or cellar, where the temperature is about + 1 ° C and the humidity is 85-95%.