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5 most common gum disease


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Gums are the basis for teeth. Like trees whose roots are located in the ground, teeth grow out of the gums. Maintaining the gums in good condition is very important for the health of not only the oral cavity, but also the whole body. In fact, gum care is just as important as dental care. This article talks about how to identify gum disease by symptoms and determine whether you need to visit a dentist or dentist surgeon.

Bracket Gum Disease

First of all, with the appearance of gum disease, braces are not installed - first, complex treatment is carried out so that wearing the construction does not create an additional load of them.

Often a person notices that after installing braces, his gums begin to swell and bleed. This may be due to insufficiently thorough oral hygiene - braces make it difficult to brush your teeth, or due to unsuccessful application. In any case, after the first symptoms it is necessary to consult a doctor to determine the cause of this.

The same problem often arises after their removal - the gum is slightly weakened, plaque inevitably accumulated under the braces. This condition also requires treatment by a dentist. However, when bringing braces, a frequent visit to the doctor is necessary, he will have time to see the impending problem and prevent the disease from developing. So any stage of gum disease with braces is a very rare phenomenon.

In this case, this is only an auxiliary tool, it will not fix the problem itself. Traditional medicine offers various decoctions and tinctures for rinsing - a string, chamomile, oak bark. Applications for inflamed gums are made from these infusions.

The name comes from the Latin Gingiva, that is, the gum. It is familiar to almost everyone - with it, the tissues around a specific tooth are inflamed pointwise. The gum becomes red and swollen.

It can be in acute or chronic form. There are also several types of gingivitis.

  • atrophic, in which the gum begins to decrease, its volume and mass become smaller, the interdental papillae disappear and the roots of the teeth are exposed. With this form, there are practically no inflammatory phenomena.
  • catarrhal - the most common
    • the acute form proceeds with pronounced symptoms, develops rapidly, the gums bleed heavily, painful, swells and reddens.
    • chronic form - all symptoms are poorly expressed, they are lethargic, sometimes they are almost not noticed. But if you do not deal with it, the disease will turn into periodontitis.
  • necrotic ulcer
  • hypertrophic - in which the gums increase in size, become inflamed and bleed, appear in it.

Any of these types of disease does not affect the tooth tissue, it does not destroy it, so coping with the disease is relatively easy for the patient, however, treatment cannot be delayed, otherwise it will become more complicated.

Gingivitis is an insidious disease that affects people of any age. Even children under one year old get sick.

There are few reasons for its occurrence.

  • low immunity, serious illness, autoimmune conditions
  • metabolic disorders, endocrine pathologies
  • smoking, including hookah and electronic cigarettes
  • caries
  • hormonal pathologies, menopause, other changes in this area
  • mechanical damage to the mucosa, including improperly made dentures.
  • teething

Sometimes the cause of such gingivitis becomes a prolonged state of stress.

Catarrhal gingivitis

The most common, most people on the planet suffer from it, in which the surface periodontal tissues become inflamed.

It occurs due to various external factors. Often it affects people during hormonal changes in the body - adolescents, pregnant women, menopause.

It can also be caused by poorly installed dentures.

There are two forms of the disease.

  • limited - in which individual teeth are affected
  • generalized - with it, for no apparent reason, the size of the gums decreases, the roots are exposed, the interdental space increases.

First, the gums begin to bleed, quite a bit. Then they become a little paler than usual. This is already the stage when you need to urgently consult a dentist - otherwise gingivitis will develop into periodontal disease.

One can suspect this problem even with such symptoms - a soft coating appears on the teeth, the gum swells. Reddish streaks appear at the base of the tooth. The teeth become sensitive to temperature and spicy, spicy food, they do not want to touch anything.

The treatment at the dentist is to remove the causes of the disease, and not the symptoms, it requires patience and strict adherence to the settings. At the very beginning of the disease, it will be possible to limit to conservative treatment; in severe cases, even surgical intervention will be required.

Any treatment should be prescribed by a doctor. Only he can decide how to treat gum disease in each individual case, since conditions that are similar in appearance may require a different approach.

As a first aid, you can prepare yourself a rinse with an infusion of a string, chamomile, or furacilin. It is impossible to “prescribe yourself” any medications on your own - this will lead to complications and may cause the disease to transition to a more complex, chronic stage, when relapses constantly occur. So how to treat gum disease, only a doctor decides.

You can remove unpleasant symptoms with pharmacy ointments

  • Propsol
  • Eludryl
  • Chlorhexidine
  • Romazulan

These ointments will reduce pain, they are hypoallergenic and bactericidal, but the main treatment still needs to be done at the dentist.

Treatment necessarily includes antibiotics. To avoid complications in the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to take probiotics with them - this can be ordinary unsweetened yogurt. Probiotics will be needed another week after antibiotics are stopped.

Gum disease in children

Children are very susceptible to this disease. In children, almost the same types of gum disease are found as in adults, but they proceed with their own characteristics, and require a slightly different approach to treatment. For example, children are not prescribed drugs containing alcohol or iodine that can burn the gums.

Most often, catarrhal gingivitis occurs in children, in which the child becomes restless, capricious, loses his appetite, his intestines are disturbed, he sleeps poorly, and the student cannot learn normally, gets tired quickly, cannot concentrate. Symptoms of general intoxication are sometimes observed - with fever, nausea, dizziness. With this form of the disease, the child complains of bleeding gums, soreness, lack of appetite.

Also, the gums can become inflamed due to hormonal changes in adolescents, malnutrition, endocrine disorders. Infectious diseases, mechanical damage to the gums can provoke it.

As a rule, it arises as a result of reduced immunity, therefore it is so important to temper children and monitor their health.

Medical expert articles

Gum disease, according to international statistics, most often affects people over the age of thirty-five. In the early stages of the disease, pain may be absent or mild. In older people (starting at age forty-five), gum disease is one of the most common causes of tooth loss.

Gum diseases include periodontitis, periodontal disease and gingivitis. With periodontitis, inflammation develops in the posterior tissues, affecting the alveolar processes and is accompanied by the formation of plaque and stone on the teeth and gingival pockets, purulent masses and tooth displacement, in case the disease has gone into a serious stage. The more neglected the disease, the harder its consequences and more difficult treatment.

With periodontal disease there is a small amount of dental plaque, exposure of the tooth necks without the formation of gingival pockets and signs of an inflammatory process, the occurrence of wedge-shaped defects. The teeth become overly sensitive, itching appears in the gums. Loosening of teeth can occur only with the development of severe periodontal disease with exposure of the tooth root by half or more.

Gingivitis develops due to the accumulation of microorganisms as a result of non-compliance with oral hygiene standards. The occurrence of gingivitis can also be associated with the wrong technique of orthodontic treatment, which, combined with inadequate dental and gum care, provokes the development of pathogens, which in turn leads to the development of an inflammatory process.

What is gum disease called?

If the first symptoms of gum disease occur, you should immediately consult a dentist. Based on a general examination and the available symptoms, the dentist will be able to clarify the diagnosis and advise you on the name of the gum disease, what measures should be taken for e treatment and how to prevent the development of the disease in the future.

The first signs of various gum diseases can be similar to each other, therefore it is extremely important to consult a doctor at an early stage of the development of the disease in order to avoid adverse consequences in the future.

Gingivitis includes gingivitis, periodontal disease and periodontitis. With the development of complications, gingivitis can take a more severe form and go into periodontitis, which is much more difficult to treat, especially in the later stages of the disease. Gum diseases, in turn, have various forms, and only a qualified doctor can differentiate them. With periodontitis, inflammation develops in the posterior tissues, periodontal pockets form, pus is excreted, subsequently exposure of the tooth root may occur.

Causes of Gum Disease

The causes of gum diseases are quite diverse, and it is possible to establish what exactly provoked this or that gum pathology in each specific case only when diagnosing and passing all the necessary tests.

Factors that can provoke gum disease, in addition to violations of the oral hygiene standards, include nicotine abuse, tartar formation, lack of vitamins in the body, impaired immune system, pregnancy, associated systemic pathologies (diabetes, acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis, etc. ), malocclusion, poor-quality filling of teeth, etc. The causes of a gum disease such as periodontal disease also include a genetic predisposition, chronic diseases morning organs, poor blood supply to the gums. The most common causes of gum disease such as gingivitis include tartar formation, smoking, irritation with chemicals, bacteria accumulation, caries.

The causes of periodontitis are divided into general and local. The first include such pathologies as diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency states, and chronic diseases. Local causes are related to the penetration of microbes into the oral cavity, tooth injuries, malocclusion.

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Symptoms of gum disease

Symptoms of gum disease vary depending on the form and type of disease and may include the following symptoms:

  • The occurrence of pain in the gums,
  • Gum bleeding
  • Swelling and redness of the gums,
  • Bad breath
  • The formation of pathological gingival pockets,
  • Purulent discharge
  • Gum hypersensitivity,
  • Loose teeth
  • Accumulation of plaque or stone on the teeth,
  • Violations of taste.

With periodontal disease, an asymptomatic course of the disease in the early stages is possible. The appearance of pathological gingival pockets and the release of pus from them are characteristic of a gum disease such as periodontitis. At the same time, the sizes of pathological pockets can vary from small to very large, depending on the stage of development of the disease (mild, moderate or severe). With exacerbation in the gums, a painful pulsation can occur, the temperature rises, general weakness, severe swelling of the gums and the release of pus are noted.

Symptoms of acute gingivitis include redness and swelling of the gums, the formation of plaque on the teeth with a soft or hard consistency. While brushing your teeth, your gums can become inflamed and bleed. In chronic forms of the disease, in addition to redness of the gums, desquamation of their upper layer is observed. With the development of hyperplastic gingivitis, the gums acquire a blue-red hue, an unpleasant odor appears from the oral cavity, false pathological pockets form, pus is released. With an ulcerative form of gingivitis, severe itching occurs in the mouth, ulcers form on the gums.

Symptoms of gum disease in the early stages may include the appearance of traces of blood when brushing your teeth or biting hard food, the occurrence of halitosis, or the deposition of stone or plaque on your teeth.

Gum disease in adults

Gum disease in adults most often occurs as a result of a violation of oral hygiene, plaque formation and the development of pathogens. All these factors can lead to the development of pathologies such as periodontitis, periodontal disease and gingivitis. Also, these diseases can provoke occlusion defects, curvature or trauma to the teeth, poor-quality filling or prosthetics.

Various systemic disorders, infectious or chronic pathologies can also lead to the development of gum disease in adults. According to statistics, most people over the age of thirty-five experience gum disease.

Gum disease in children

Most often, gum disease in children is associated with the development of gingivitis. With this disease, an inflammatory process occurs in the gums, resulting from poor oral hygiene and the growth of bacteria. Timely and qualified treatment will help prevent the transition of the disease into a more complex form - periodontitis, the consequences of which can be quite serious.

The first step in treating a child’s gum disease should be a visit to the dentist. Further, on the basis of general symptoms, the appropriate treatment will be prescribed: the doctor will carry out professional cleaning of teeth from plaque, treat the oral cavity with antiseptics, prescribe vitamin and antibacterial drugs, give recommendations on the choice of toothpaste and proper care for teeth and gums.

Gum disease during pregnancy

During pregnancy, changes in the hormonal background occur in the woman’s body, as a result of which the blood supply to the mucous membranes is significantly reduced and, as a result, an inflammatory process can develop in the gums. They become swollen and painful, begin to bleed, a soft coating forms on the teeth, an unpleasant smell is felt from the oral cavity. Such signs may indicate the development of gingivitis. In no case should you delay a visit to the dentist, since the disease can go into a more severe form and cause the development of complications.

To treat gingivitis in pregnant women, plaque and stone are removed, and anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Teeth cleansing from plaque can be carried out mechanically or by ultrasound. As a local treatment, the patient can be prescribed rinses and irrigation of the oral cavity. Anti-inflammatory drugs are selected individually by the attending physician, taking into account the general symptoms of the disease and recommendations for use during pregnancy.

It is extremely important to cure gum disease during pregnancy at an early stage and to prevent the development of complications. At the first alarming symptoms, a pregnant woman should immediately visit a doctor.

Diseases of the teeth and gums

Diseases of the teeth and gums arise due to various reasons and can be closely related to each other or develop independently of each other.

The most common tooth disease is caries, during the development of which there is a destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth, the destruction of enamel. The causes of this pathology include violations of oral hygiene, the accumulation of bacteria and the formation of plaque. With the advanced form of the disease, caries can cause pulpitis, in which there is a shooting pain in the area of ​​the affected tooth, often intensifying at night. Pain can radiate to the jaw, the front part, occur suddenly and be accompanied by a painful pulsation. To the development of pulpitis can also lead to tooth injury.

Gum diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, with the development of severe forms and complications can cause loosening of the teeth, which subsequently can lead to their complete loss.

To prevent such severe consequences of gum disease, it should be treated already in the early stages, it is also important to observe oral hygiene, to prevent the accumulation of bacteria and the formation of tartar and plaque.

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Gum disease and treatment

Periodontitis, periodontal disease and gingivitis are quite serious gum diseases and their treatment should be started when the first signs of the disease appear: redness and swelling of the gums, their bleeding, halitosis, and plaque.

Treatment of gum disease begins with the elimination of plaque, performing dental brushing, and treating the oral cavity with antiseptic agents. Treatment for gum disease can be conservative or surgical. With periodontitis, depending on the size of the formed pathological pockets, a curettage procedure (closed or open), patchwork are performed. In uncomplicated forms of this disease, washing of the gingival pockets and eliminating plaque, which can help relieve inflammation, may be sufficient for treatment.

The treatment of periodontal disease is also accompanied by the elimination of dental deposits and the cleaning of the oral cavity from pathogens. If conservative treatment is ineffective, surgery is performed.

Gingivitis treatment can also be surgical or conservative, depending on the stage and form of the disease. Conservative methods of treating gingivitis include oral hygiene, the use of drugs to relieve the inflammatory process, the elimination of deposits on the teeth, and the disinfection of the oral cavity. For this purpose, chlorhexidine is most often used. If there is an overhang of the edges of the filling material, they must be removed. In case of malocclusion, orthodontic therapy is performed. As part of a comprehensive treatment of gum diseases, the patient is advised to quit smoking, it is also required to regularly use therapeutic and prophylactic toothpaste and brush his teeth at least twice a day in accordance with the recommendations of the dentist for proper care of teeth and gums. Surgical treatment of gingivitis is aimed at eliminating false periodontal pockets. With a long course of the disease, the use of antibacterial and painkillers is possible.

How to treat gum disease?

The most effective treatment for gum disease is achieved in the early stages of the disease. The preservation of dental health may subsequently depend on when and how to treat gum disease, so the slightest signs of the development of any pathology in the gums require a visit to a dental clinic and the advice of an experienced doctor.

As a rule, treatment of gum disease begins with professional cleaning of the teeth and removal of plaque, cleaning the oral cavity of accumulated bacteria. Further, the tactics of treatment are selected depending on the diagnosis and may include conservative or surgical methods.

Treatment of gum diseases with folk remedies

Folk remedies can be used as part of the complex treatment of gum disease as auxiliary methods of treatment.

Treatment of gum diseases with folk remedies may consist of rinsing the oral cavity or rubbing the gums with a gauze swab soaked in vegetable ointment. To prepare the rinse aid, you can use propolis, infused with alcohol, with the addition of dried calamus and peppermint roots (two liters of thirty percent alcohol plus one hundred grams of calamus roots and large propolis). Use tincture should be after each meal and brushing your teeth for two to three weeks. This tool helps to get rid of bleeding, relieve pain, strengthen tooth enamel.

You can use fir oil to wipe the gums. To do this, add one to three grams of fir oil to one hundred grams of water, dip a gauze swab in the resulting solution and wipe the gums for two to three minutes twice a day. Before using any traditional medicine, be sure to consult your dentist and make sure that there are no allergic reactions.


Children's gingivitis often happens even in very young children during teething, when the gums are injured. In this case, parents should immediately contact a pediatric dentist to prevent chronic gum disease. The thing is that there is a type of gingivitis that is similar in symptoms to when children have teeth. Parents attributed severe itching, salivation and redness to this, the disease proceeds without treatment. Subsequently, the children begin to have real problems with the gums.
So, at the slightest suspicion of a disorder in the baby’s mouth, you should consult a specialist - it’s better to be safe than sorry for a long time.

Infants usually experience catarrhal gingivitis in this period, however, they themselves disappear after the tooth erupts, this does not cause consequences.

To treat gum disease, small children are usually prescribed applications from decoctions of herbs and soothing infusions, so that they do not suffer from itching so much.

During pregnancy and lactation

The first symptoms often appear in the first 10-12 weeks. Most often it is a catarrhal or hypertrophic type of disease. It happens that the disease affects both the upper and lower jaws. Treatment should be started immediately, because under the influence of pathological flora there is also a developing fetus.

The treatment of gingivitis in this condition also has its own characteristics - women should not be prescribed certain drugs for the therapy.
During this period, the treatment of any gum disease should be safe. Therefore, most often it consists in alternative methods of treatment, the doctor only regularly removes plaque so that the disease does not develop further. Anti-inflammatory therapy is also carried out and symptoms are stopped.
Plaque is removed by painless methods of Air Flow technology or by manual methods. Ultrasound to remove deposits on the teeth during pregnancy is unacceptable, this can seriously damage the baby. With lactation, the ultrasound method is allowed.

If the problem is revealed in the last trimester, doctors recommend postponing plaque removal to the postpartum period, but for now restrict it to anti-inflammatory therapy.

In the same way, when feeding a baby, a woman is not prescribed medications so that their components do not get into milk.

Hygiene rules

For this, daily brushing is not enough. It is also necessary to clean the tongue and the inner surface of the cheeks and massage the gums. To do this, you also need to choose a suitable toothbrush - moderately soft and elastic, so that it does not injure the gums. It should be regularly changed, ideally - monthly, but permissible once a quarter. Children need special brushes no longer than the width of three teeth.

Even if you have gum disease and brushing your teeth turned out to be a painful procedure, this is just a signal to visit a dentist. Teeth still need to be cleaned twice a day. If it really hurts - take a children's toothbrush, it is softer.

Proper nutrition

There is plenty of solid fresh vegetables, they help to remove plaque on the teeth, cleanse them, massage the gums and remove microbes and bacteria from them. Be careful with acidic fruits - their juice can damage the mucous membrane. After using them, it is better to rinse your mouth with water.
Less sweet, of course. This also applies to soda, even "juice-containing" - in a glass of sweet soda contains the daily norm of sugar, in addition, they have a lot of acid. Often, instead of juice, their chemical substitutes with a “taste identical to natural” are added there. The resulting solution damages the gums, and gas bubbles only accelerate absorption into the mucosa.


Inflammatory disease of the gum tissue. With him, there is a constant growth of these phenomena leads to a weakening of the space around the teeth. The gums bleed heavily, later purulent discharge from the gums may appear.

The causes of the disease can be different. Among the most common - untreated gingivitis, poor oral hygiene. It also often occurs against a background of weakened immunity - with diabetes, various chronic diseases, hematological problems, and oncology.

Periodontitis can also be caused by genetic predispositions when it occurs for no reason.

It happens against the background of general injuries, when the damaged gum is exposed to microbes and bacteria. Injury can be caused by mechanical action on the gums - for example, a scratch when cracking nuts.

One of the main symptoms of periodontitis that has begun is the so-called gingival pockets - the free space between the gum and the tooth, into which the remnants of food fall. This only aggravates the course of the disease.


It is acute and chronic.

  • Acute - the gums are reddened, painful, sometimes so much that it becomes impossible to brush your teeth. This in turn leads to complications. Itching and bad breath are added to the listed symptoms - eo is associated with greater swelling and decay of bacteria vital products. Acute periodontal disease is mild, moderate and severe.
  • Chronic - all the same processes as in the acute form, but proceeding in a mild form. Symptoms then appear, then disappear, the disease does not stop for years.

It is always very long and complex. It is carried out by a periodontist. In addition to the prescribed antibacterial drugs, the patient undergoes many other procedures.

  • In the treatment complex, the condition of the gums is taken into account, and plaque is regularly removed.
  • Special tires are installed on staggering teeth to help strengthen them.
  • Vitamins are injected into the gums - to normalize the metabolic processes in the mucosa
  • Various physiotherapy sessions are conducted to accelerate tissue regeneration.
  • Rinses with decoctions and infusions of herbs are prescribed to relieve inflammation and strengthen the mucous membrane. Usually this is chamomile, sage, string, oak bark.

The treatment of this disease is not worth doing on your own. Each disease can be caused by other reasons, only a doctor can choose the right treatment.

Periodontal disease

Severe gum disease, the reasons for its appearance are not completely clear even to the dentists themselves. It is believed that it can occur due to not fully treated periodontitis. It occurs against the background of a general weakening of the body. With him, inflammatory processes occur already in the deep tissues of the gums. Ligaments cease to work normally, the tooth does not adhere well to the gum, loosens and falls out. However, it can be absolutely healthy. In the process, bone tissue is destroyed. But there are no gingival pockets and bleeding gums.

The causes of periodontal disease may not necessarily be associated with insufficient oral hygiene. These may be circumstances related to human health in general. Most often, this disease occurs with weakened immunity. It can also provoke

  • Endocrine system diseases
  • Problems in the cardiovascular system
  • Allergy to medications
  • Digestive Disorders and Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Hereditary factor - if this disease was in the immediate family, it may occur in you.

Signs of the disease

This disease is quite insidious - it can be difficult to notice the beginning of its manifestation. The main and so far the only formidable symptom - a healthy tooth begins to respond to hot and cold food, spices, cold air and wind.

What else to look for

  • itching in the gums
  • Visual sensation of increased tooth length - this means that the gums are down, the neck of the tooth is exposed
  • the oral mucosa turns pale
  • there is an unpleasant smell
  • the teeth begin to stagger, deposits are formed at the base of the teeth, which cannot be brushed off with ordinary home brushing

If these signs appear, you should immediately consult a dentist to try to save your teeth or at least put the disease in remission. In the case of relapses, all ongoing procedures will need to be repeated.

Unfortunately, both of these gum diseases also occur in children. In them, it also proceeds, as in adults, but children can initially hide the first symptoms of beginning periodontal disease. In this case, the signal for the parents can be a suddenly pale mucous membrane in the child.

If such a diagnosis is made to the baby, parents should pay attention to his general health, and undergo a complete examination with various doctors - a cardiologist, endocrinologist, rheumatologist, in order to identify the cause of a weakened immune system. Otherwise, all procedures at the dentist will be ineffective, and the child may lose completely healthy teeth.

Only a doctor should treat periodontal disease, self-medication is unacceptable. All the necessary manipulations and drugs will be prescribed to you by the dentist. At home, you can spend

  • Gum massage - it will help restore normal blood flow. The doctor will show how to do it correctly so as not to harm weakened teeth
  • Vitamin intake - additional nutrition from inside the tissues
  • Rinse with decoctions of herbs

It will also be necessary to treat carious teeth in order to prevent the development of infection.

Physiotherapy is also required to accelerate recovery processes.

Surgery may be necessary to make the teeth in the bone more resilient.


In addition to general hygiene rules, you should also pay attention to nutrition - you need to eat a lot of hard fruits. When chewing, gum tissue massage occurs.

With timely treatment, periodontitis can be cured. Periodontal disease is not yet curable, however, research is constantly ongoing in this direction.