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How to drain a wet area from water: effective ways to deal with excess moisture


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Wet soil can cause significant inconvenience both at the construction site and in the backyard. You can use lime to dry a very moist soil whipped up, but if you are interested in a more natural solution for slightly moist soil, it is better to use traditional ameliorating agents or perform aeration.

What affects the choice of drainage method

The accumulation of water on the site can occur for many reasons, but the main ones are the following:

  • groundwater level rise,
  • the site is located in the lowlands, which contributes to the rapid accumulation of precipitation,
  • clay and loamy soils with a low coefficient of moisture absorption.

The most problematic places on the site are determined in the off-season, when the maximum amount of precipitation falls - in early spring and late autumn. It is recommended to pump out water from the site in the dry period - in summer.

Quick drainage of the land is carried out by several methods. When choosing the appropriate solution to the problem, you must consider the main factors:

  • type and level of water permeability of the soil,
  • land size,
  • optimal level of water decline,
  • period of drainage of soil from groundwater,
  • prefabricated buildings on the site requiring drainage,
  • direction of underground sources
  • the presence and type of vegetation.

The most popular land drainage methods on the site are the drainage system, sewage pits and ditches, landscape design elements, moisture-loving shrubs and trees.

Closed and open drainage systems

Modern drainage systems allow you to quickly and effectively get rid of excess fluid in the area. Simple drainage consists of a pipe and a water receiver. A stream, a lake, a river, a ravine or a ditch can be used as a water intake.

The drainage system is arranged from the water intake to the land with the optimal distance between its main elements. On dense soils with a high clay content, the distance between individual drains should be 8–10 meters, on loose and heaving soils — up to 18 meters.

Outdoor drainage

An open or French drainage system is a shallow ditch, the bottom of which is filled with fine gravel and stones. Such drainage is arranged quite simply: a ditch of small depth is excavated with the discharge of drains into the drainage well or a deep trench to the level of the sand layer, which is used as a drainage pillow.

A well for drainage of 1 × 1 m in size can have a closed and open structure, its bottom is filled with gravel of middle fraction and brick fight. Such structures do not clog, but are filled with soil, which is washed with water. For this reason, draining a well of this type is much more difficult than an open gutter.

Indoor drainage

A technically sophisticated device that quickly removes excess water and prevents stagnation. Arrangement of closed drainage is carried out using clay or asbestos cement pipes with laying in a certain order - in a straight line or in a herringbone. Closed drainage is suitable for areas located under a slight slope, which provides a natural flow of water.

Closed drains are often combined with drainage systems that allow water to be removed from the base of the house.

Gutter pits and ditches

Many owners choose a simple enough way to solve the problem of draining the land by digging sewage pits and ditches. The arrangement of the conical-shaped pit is performed as follows: at the bottom point, you need to dig a pit up to 100 cm deep, up to 200 cm wide at the top and 55 cm at the bottom. The drainage system is quite effective, since excess moisture can be discharged into the sewage pit without the use of additional funds.

The process of arranging the gutters is more time-consuming, but no less effective. Ditches break out around the entire perimeter of the territory - the depth and width is 45 cm. The walls are made at an angle of 25 degrees. The bottom is laid out with a brick fight or gravel. The main disadvantage of the ditches is their gradual shedding, so it is worthwhile to timely clean and strengthen the walls with boards or concrete slabs.

Elements of landscape design - streams and ponds

Effectively get rid of excess water on the site due to the arrangement of artificial ponds and streams. Similar elements of landscape design can be organized in areas located at a slight slope.

Water sources are best arranged in dark places to avoid blooming water. The bottom of the artificial pond is laid out with stone or geotextiles.

To enhance the effect, moisture-loving vegetation - shrubs, plants, grass can be planted next to an artificial pond.

Such landscape forms are structurally reminiscent of the French drainage system, since they are equipped according to the same principle.

Moisture-planting - shrubs, trees and grass

Moisture-loving trees, shrubs and grasses that can pump out excess water are used to drain the soil.

In order for green spaces to remove moisture, you need to know which varieties are recommended to be planted on the site. Such plantations include: willow, birch, maple, alder and poplar.

Shrubs are no less demanded: hawthorn, dog rose and cysticis. In moist soils, hydrangea, shadberry, spirea, mock and Amur lilacs develop.

To give the site attractiveness and aesthetics, moisture-loving garden flowers are planted - iris, aquilegia and asters.

Too moist soil is not suitable for growing fruit trees - pears, apple trees, plums and apricots. Therefore, when choosing trees, it is better to give preference to seedlings with a superficial root system. Planting trees is carried out on hills up to 55 cm high.

To do this, a peg is driven into the soil, the earth around it is dug up to a depth of 25 cm. A prepared seedling is attached to the peg, the roots are sprinkled with earth with the addition of humus. The root neck remains exposed to a height of 8 cm above the ground.

After planting is completed, the seedling is abundantly watered with water to get rid of the air gaps between the root system and the soil.

Important! Excessively moist soil has a high acidity, therefore, when draining, it is recommended to additionally liming it. This will improve the quality of the soil for further gardening and household work.

During operation, the condition of the soil on the site is carefully checked, since excess moisture can negatively affect garden crops, residential and farm buildings. The procedure for draining the soil is recommended to be carried out simultaneously with liming.

Now every landowner knows the answer to the question of how to get rid of water on the site and do it right. This will require free time, desire and financial investment.

They grabbed fragmentary information on the topic, put it in a heap and gave it out as a kind of “author's” view of the problem.

First of all, it is necessary to determine the concept of drainage and what is meant by this.

Part of what is written in the article has no relation to drainage systems and relates to the types of arrangement of storm water drainage systems that are necessary AT ANY PLOT with a capital building for year-round use.

These systems can only partially overlap with drainage systems or be completely independent.

In this case, still implemented erroneously! Storm sewage does not need filtration through the so-called. “Filtration fields”, since rainwater is already clean and you just need to divert it from the site / structure to prevent waterlogging and / or destruction of foundations (the filtration fields simply can’t cope in case of heavy rains and this whole “pit” will quickly fill with water, which to support sewage from the house).

How this is done correctly - look at specialized resources where the options for arranging "stormwater" are considered in sufficient detail and usually do not cause difficulties when arranging.

The implementation of the drainage system is a completely different engineering measure and, first of all, it is necessary to find out the main question: do you really need it and what?

Flooding in the spring area after intense melting of snow or heavy rains is not at all a sign of the need to equip a drainage (usually not cheap!) System.

This may be due to improperly equipped or absent storm sewers, soil features on the site (the water simply does not go deep due to clay soils close to the surface, but the groundwater level can be very low (for example, at 4-8 meters) there are plenty of such soils on the territory of the Russian Federation (almost all of the Rostov and Volgograd regions, the Caspian lowland and all types of solonchak soils are quite common in some areas of the Moscow and Leningrad region).

In this case, to arrange an open storm through a system of drainage ditches is within the power of anyone and practically without financial costs. Drainage systems are necessary when a steadily high level of groundwater (GWP) is observed, which can have a negative effect on the foundations of buildings and garden crops. What drainage systems, their need, approximate estimates for work and materials, etc., determine the geology of the site and the plan for its arrangement, including plans for the structures being built (for organizing wall drainage of the foundation).

I advise you to weigh the pros and cons before purchasing a site, it will be decided whether you will build something capital and expensive on it (or will you be satisfied with the change house on surface concrete supports), what kind of garden work are you planning (or just come to barbecue).

Sometimes (and very often) in the end it turns out to be cheaper to significantly overpay for the best site than later spent on deep drainage and digging everything with an excavator.

Dmitry is in many ways right. One must always think which waters cause overmoistening: surface or ground. But in all cases, drainage is still needed. Storm sewage is also drainage of surface water (see SNiP 2.06.03-85). It can be realized by planning the surface by giving it a slope, arranging small furrows (which is difficult in annual maintenance, since they are overgrown, silted, etc.) or small closed drains filled with coarse-grained material. As for solonchak soils, in principle, they cannot be in the Moscow and Leningrad regions, and indeed in the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia, since this is a humid zone. There is more rainfall than natural evaporation. Therefore, there is no excess salt here, which means there are no salt marshes either. Cottages in the Non-Black Earth region stood out in inconvenience, on wetlands with a high level of groundwater. where in 80% of cases one cannot do without a different type of drainage. Unfortunately, there is practically no popular literature on how to deal with waterlogging in the country, establish the reasons, determine the design, construction technology of the drainage.

As one of the authors of SNiP "Land Reclamation Systems and Structures", based on 40 years of experience in the design and construction of drainage, I wrote 2 brochures. 1.Construction of drainage in summer cottages with their own hands. 2. Drainage in the country with your own hands (how to remove excess water from the site). Author E.I.Kormysh. Both were published in 2017.