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Definition of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD)


ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is usually diagnosed in early childhood, as it is more often a congenital dysfunction of the lobes of the brain responsible for attention. But sometimes the syndrome makes itself felt already in adulthood. And even if attention deficit was diagnosed in childhood, a person will face certain consequences of the disease throughout his life. How in adulthood to get along with attention deficit? Learn from the article.

2. ADHD in children. How to help your child?

Children with ADHD have difficulty concentrating and are therefore not always able to cope with learning tasks. They make mistakes by inattention, do not pay attention and do not listen to explanations. Sometimes they can show excessive mobility, spinning, getting up, doing many unnecessary actions, instead of sitting quietly and concentrating on studying or other activities.

This behavior is unacceptable in the classroom and creates problems both at school and at home. Such children often have poor grades and are often considered mischievous, naughty, “terrorizing” families and peers at school. Moreover, they themselves may suffer from low self-esteem, it is difficult for them to make friends and make friends with other children.

In fact, the reason for the above behavior is the lack of certain biologically active substances in some parts of the brain. Each part of the brain controls certain behavioral and mental processes. ADHD is thought to affect more than one area of ​​the brain. Depending on which part of the brain is affected, the child may show more signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

ADHD in adults (signs)

The adult population accounts for 60% of the total number of diagnosed cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. And although the syndrome often goes back to childhood, several factors influence its development:

  • genetic (hereditary predisposition),
  • biological (infections and injuries in the womb),
  • social (conflicts, injuries, poisoning).

Adults with ADHD are more emotional than their peers. These are eccentric people, now mired in dreams and estranged from the world, then fussyly carried away by reality, sprayed onto everything and in fact doing nothing. Increased emotionality can be considered as an advantage, if you direct it into a creative direction (as Jim Carrey did) or as an obstacle, because increased emotionality translates into difficulties in the main areas of life.

Female hyperactivity syndrome is less common than male. And is accompanied by other manifestations. The main difference is that hyperactivity in women is less pronounced than attention deficit. They more often hover in the clouds than fuss. General insecurity, anxiety and a tendency to depression are noted. Symptoms, in particular mood swings, intensify before menstruation.

In adulthood, attention deficit disorder is manifested as follows:

  • the inability to focus on one thing,
  • inadequate perception of time, anxiety before the deadline,
  • ignoring everyday tasks like cleaning an apartment,
  • bouts of perfectionism
  • immunity to information spoken by someone, inability to listen and listen,
  • the inability to finish the job,
  • forgetting and, accordingly, non-fulfillment of part of the tasks or all duties completely
  • sudden breakdowns,
  • difficulty reading, understanding information, annoyance in this regard,
  • decreased attention in teamwork,
  • the use of drawings, diagrams and “duty” cards to memorize everyday information,
  • problems with the reproduction of knowledge,
  • nervousness and complete passivity,
  • passivity is accompanied by minor manipulations: spinning in a chair, drumming with your fingers, rubbing your face, throwing your legs,
  • distractability, a frequent feeling of boredom, injustice, inability to relax and rest,
  • rash and dangerous decisions due to impulsiveness (actions are ahead of thoughts): risky transactions and actions, dangerous driving with accidents, superficial and short-term friendly and love relationships, ignoring norms and rules, provocations,
  • overly mobile mood (from depression to unexplained reactivity),
  • dependence of performance and mood on external stimuli,
  • explosive character
  • rage, temper, impatience, often provoking the dismissal, loss of friends and family,
  • hypersensitivity, including in a separate area, for example, hearing,
  • low resistance to stress, the tendency to "turn a fly into an elephant",
  • complete disorganization of life,
  • difficulties in adapting to change,
  • drowsiness and thoughtfulness.

The risk of addictive behavior is high, which is due to attempts to improve concentration and increase energy with the help of chocolate, tea, coffee, energy drinks or to get rid of internal stress through alcohol, cigarettes and drugs. People with ADHD are prone to compulsive disorders.

An adult with hyperactivity often turns out to be isolated from society due to the fact that he cannot be attentive, highlight the main and important in a specific situation, incorrectly perceive and mistakenly interpret facial expressions and gestures of people.

Not all people with ADHD feel the same symptoms and have difficulty. In many cases, overall legal capacity and concentration is stronger than the disorders characteristic of the syndrome. Its manifestations depend on age and change over time, but inner anxiety, a feeling of submission and suggestibility, impossibility of achieving a goal, difficulties in work and study, frequent job changes, divorces and breaks in relationships, and relocations are almost always noted.

2.1. Features of behavior in this syndrome

1. Symptoms of inattention.

Such children are easily distracted, forgetful, and hardly focus their attention. They have problems with completing assignments, organizing, and following instructions. One gets the impression that they are not listening when they are told something. They often make mistakes due to carelessness, lose their school supplies and other things.

2. Symptoms of hyperactivity.

Children seem impatient, excessively sociable, fussy, cannot sit still for long. In the classroom, they tend to break loose at the wrong time. Figuratively speaking, they are constantly in motion, as if wound up.

3. Symptoms of impulsivity.

Very often, in class, teenagers and children with ADHD shout an answer before the teacher finishes his question, constantly interrupt when others speak, it is difficult for them to wait their turn. They are not able to postpone the pleasure. If they want something, then they should get it at the same moment, not succumbing to a variety of persuasions.

All children can sometimes be inattentive or hyperactive, so what makes children with ADHD different?

ADHD is detected if the child’s behavior is different from the behavior of other children of the same age and level of development for a sufficiently long time, at least 6 months. These behavioral characteristics arise up to 7 years, in the future they appear in various social situations and adversely affect intra-family relationships.

If the symptoms of ADHD are significant, this leads to social maladaptation of the child at school and at home. The child should be carefully examined by a doctor to rule out other diseases that can also cause these behavioral disorders.

The danger of attention deficit disorder

A person with attention deficit disorder from the outside looks very contradictory: either he puts aside important and simple things, then he becomes obsessed with something, forgetting about sleep and food, trying to achieve perfection. Relationship difficulties are one of the consequences of ADHD.

But much more dangerous is disappointment in oneself, arising from disappointment in activity, the harbinger of which is boredom. And a person with ADHD begins to get bored very easily: due to the features of the functioning of the brain, interest quickly disappears, attention is diverted, the slightest rustle is distracting, the business remains incomplete.

Due to chronic incompleteness, a person develops and accumulates numerous fears and complexes, anxiety. Taken together, all of the above can result in depression.

2.2. Associated Violations

• Learning problems

Children with ADH syndrome cannot fully process certain types of information. One child understands what he sees worse, the other - what he hears. As a result, attention deficit hyperactive children have problems learning school subjects.

The child is fenced off from the outside world and is sad most of the time. A baby with attention deficit disorder usually has low self-esteem and has little interest in life. The child can sleep or eat noticeably more or less than usual.

Excessive fears can make a baby vulnerable and shy. He is usually haunted by disturbing thoughts. The baby is too active, calm or withdrawn. Please note that childhood fears and child depression may be associated not only with ADHD, but with other causes.

A child’s behavior in ADHD can be extremely unbearable. It often makes parents feel guilty and ashamed. Having a child with ADHD does not mean that you have raised it poorly.

ADHD - This is a disease that requires proper diagnosis and proper treatment. With effective treatment, you can normalize behavior at school and at home, increase the child’s self-esteem, facilitate social interaction with other children and adults, that is, help the child reach his full potential and return him to a full life.

ADHD Correction

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults is corrected with the help of drug therapy and psychotherapy, provided that the syndrome interferes with the personality in the main areas. If the manifestations do not harm, then treatment is not necessary, but the syndrome alone cannot pass.

Psychotherapy is selected individually depending on disturbing problems, for example, specialists help someone to get rid of bad habits or compulsions, someone is working on taming anger or increasing stress resistance. Depending on the case, it is prescribed:

  • individual psychotherapy (correction of self-esteem, getting rid of accumulated emotions, embarrassment or shame, resentment),
  • marital and family psychotherapy (conflict resolution based on forgetfulness and compulsive decisions, education of family members about the characteristics of the disease for the sake of better understanding),
  • group psychotherapy (building relationships with the team),
  • cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy (changing stereotypes of behavior, habits, beliefs, attitudes).

It uses trainings that teach the practice of organizing time and space, helping to develop organizational and managerial abilities. They do not understand the causes of behavior and emotions, but simply give effective instructions and advice on organizing a workplace, drawing up a plan of tasks, their implementation and redistribution of time and effort.

You can reduce the severity of symptoms of ADHD by improvised means with the help of:

  • outdoor sports (production of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine increases concentration and brain activity, improves mood),
  • normalization and maintenance of sleep patterns,
  • healthy nutrition (it is useful to refuse sweet and fast carbohydrates, give preference to protein foods).

To increase self-control, it is useful to do yoga, meditation or other relaxation methods. It is proved that in the process of training, the work of the prefrontal cortex improves, which is responsible for attention, planning and self-control. To relieve situational stress and irritation, breathing techniques are suitable.

It is important to understand that with a diagnosis of ADHD, a person cannot act otherwise. It is not a matter of weak willpower, but of a diagnosis. So do not reproach yourself. Accept yourself and help yourself: take notes, set electronic reminders, work with headphones, minimize the influence of external stimuli (maximize the workplace and the room at home), make a plan and daily routine, set small tasks, alternate activities, deal with complex and concentration-intensive types sports, walk, warm up during the working day.

Remember that you are special and unique, nothing prevents you from achieving the same and even greater successes that other people have. The main thing is to find your path and tools for productive life. This is what Avril Lavigne, Justin Timberlake, Liv Tyler, Will Smith, Paris Hilton, Jim Carrey have diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

2.3. How to behave with a child?

1. Develop a positive attitude. Instead of criticizing the child and telling him what he should NOT do, turn your remarks in a more positive way and tell the child what SHOULD do. For example, instead of: “Do not throw your clothes on the floor,” try saying, “Let me help you remove your clothes.”

2. Do not skimp on praise.

3. Help your child not to worry. Activities such as relaxing games, listening to pleasant music, taking a bath will help your child calm down when he is annoyed or disappointed.

4. Make simple and clear rules for your child. Children need a specific routine. With it, they know when and what they need to do, and they feel calmer. Perform daily activities at the same time of the day.

5. Communicate more. Talk with your child. Discuss various topics with him - what happened at school, what he saw in the movies or on television. Find out what the child thinks.

6. Limit the number of distractions and control the work of the child.

7. Correctly respond to bad behavior. Explain what exactly angered you in his behavior.

8. Have a rest. Sometimes you need a rest.

9. If you feel that you are not coping, talk to your doctor who will give the necessary advice.

Although it is believed that ADHD is not completely cured, but it can be corrected. The treatment of attention deficit hyperactive children can combine educational methods, drug and behavioral therapy. The course of treatment for attention disorders is selected individually.

If your baby is suffering from attention deficit, then you should take note of the attention development exercises.

3. About attention deficit syndromes in adults. Signs and Symptoms

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), contrary to popular belief, occurs not only in children. Constant lateness, disorganization, forgetfulness are some of the unpleasant manifestations of this syndrome, which can upset the personal life and career of an adult. The first step in the fight against this psychological disease is to understand the syndrome itself and its features.

As a rule, attention deficit disorder appears in adults who were diagnosed with this disease in childhood. However, there are cases when this syndrome first appears only in adulthood.
The attention deficit in children often goes unnoticed and is attributed by parents and teachers to the personal qualities of the child: a dreamer, a toffee, a lazy person or simply “not the most gifted student in the class”.

In adults, SDA proceeds differently than in children, and in each individual case may have unique manifestations. The following categories describe the most common symptoms of ADD in adults.

1. The problem of concentration and focusing attention

Adults with ADD often have difficulty concentrating in everyday tasks and activities. Common symptoms in this category are:

• “freezing” without realizing it, even in the middle of a conversation.
• Increased distractibility, "wandering" attention to makes it possible to concentrate on one task or subject.
• The inability to focus, for example, when reading or someone else's speech.
• Difficulties in completing tasks, even the simplest ones.
• The tendency to not pay attention to details, which leads to errors in work or study.
• Weak listening ability, difficulty in reproducing a conversation or following instructions.

2. Overconcentration

As a rule, it is believed that people with ADD cannot focus on anything, but this coin also has a flip side: sometimes such people focus too much on a task or subject. This paradoxical symptom is called overconcentration.

Например, человек может так сильно увлечься, «раствориться» в книге, телевизионной передаче или компьютерной игре, что напрочь забудет о времени или своих обязательствах, которые необходимо делать. Сверхконцентрацию можно направить в продуктивное русло, однако при игнорировании этого симптома, его последствия могут сказаться на работе или отношениях.

3. Disorganization and forgetfulness

Attention deficit disorder often violates the established order of substance in the life of an adult. Organization, ability to prioritize, consistency in tasks and tasks and timing are becoming an overwhelming task for adults with ADD. Common symptoms of disorganization and forgetfulness include:

  • Weak organizational skills (a house, workplace or car is full of unnecessary things, are in a state of chronic disorder).
  • The desire to put things off.
  • Difficulties in starting and completing assignments.
  • Chronic lateness.
  • Permanent forgetting about appointments, about these obligations or fixed dates.
  • The constant loss of things or shifting them to inappropriate places (keys, wallet, phone).
  • Inability to count time.

4. Impulsivity

If this symptom is part of your complex of manifestations of ADD, then you may have behavioral problems and an incorrect reaction to phrases of other people. You have problems with impulsivity if it happens to you:

• Constant interruption of interlocutors.
• Inability to control oneself.
• Thoughtless speaking out loud of thoughts that may turn out to be rude or indecent.
• Desire for addictive substances or activities.
• Spontaneous or thoughtless action without awareness of the consequences.
• Problems in adequate behavior in society (even sitting in a frozen pose for a long meeting can be attributed here).

5. Emotional difficulties

Many adults with ADD have problems with feelings, especially anger and frustration. Typical symptoms of this category are:

• Feeling bad results.
• Inability to cope with disappointment.
• Rapid onset of fatigue or nervous agitation.
• Frequent irritability and mood swings.
• Difficulties in maintaining motivation.
• Hypersensitivity to criticism.
• Short temper.
• Low self-esteem and increased vulnerability.

6. Hyperactivity and Anxiety

Adult hyperactivity is similar to hyperactivity in children. It manifests itself in increased energy. However, in adults, this symptom has a greater effect on the psychological state than on physical activity. The complex of symptoms of hyperactivity includes:

• Feeling of anxiety, agitation.
• Striving for risky situations.
• Fast onset of boredom.
• “Running” thoughts.
• Reluctance to sit still in one place, motor restlessness.
• An acute desire for vivid impressions.
• Excessive talkativeness.
• Doing many things at once.

Adults with attention deficit disorder are less likely to show hyperactivity than children. Only a small number of people with ADD show symptoms in this category. Remember that you may have Attention Deficit Disorder even with no symptoms of hyperactivity.

4. Treatment. Attack Deficit Disorder

Often people themselves do not suspect that they have such problems, considering this fussiness and eternal rush to be quite natural.

And if you, as you read the article, have found symptoms of this disease, do not be upset. After all, ADHD is a disease, and any disease can be cured.

For more effective treatment, it is important to know your type of ADHD.
There are at least 6 different types of ADHD, each of which require a different treatment approach.

Type 1: classic ADHD.

Patients have major symptoms of ADHD, as well as hyperactivity, nervousness, and impulsivity. There is a decrease in the activity of the frontal cortex and cerebellum, especially when concentrated. This type is usually diagnosed in the early stages of life.

In this case, you should use dietary supplements that increase dopamine levels in the brain, such as green tea, L-tyrosine and Rhodiola rosea. If they are ineffective, then stimulant medications may be needed. A diet high in protein and limited in simple carbohydrates can also be very helpful.

Type 2: Inattentive ADHD.

Patients demonstrate the main symptoms of ADHD, but besides this, they experience a loss of strength, reduced motivation, detachment, and a tendency to get hung up on themselves.

This type is usually diagnosed at a later age. It is more common in girls. These are quiet children and adults, they are considered lazy, unmotivated and not very smart. Recommendations for this type are the same as for the 1st.
Type 3: ADHD with excessive fixation.

These patients are also characterized by primary symptoms of ADHD, but in combination with cognitive inflexibility, problems with switching attention, a tendency to focus on negative thoughts and obsessive behavior, the need for uniformity. In addition, there is a predisposition to anxiety and resentment, and they tend to like to argue and go against.

Stimulants usually only worsen the condition of such patients. For treatment, supplements that increase the level of serotonin and dopamine are better. A diet with a balanced combination of healthy proteins and smart carbohydrates is also recommended.

Type 4: ADHD of the temporal lobes.

The main symptoms of ADHD in these patients are combined with temper. Sometimes they experience periods of anxiety, headaches or abdominal pains, indulge in gloomy thoughts, have memory problems and difficulty reading, and sometimes incorrectly interpret comments addressed to them. In childhood, they often have head injuries, or in their family, one of the relatives experienced seizures of rage.

Stimulants usually make these patients even more irritable. It is best to use a combination of stimulant supplements to help calm and stabilize your mood. If the patient has problems with memory or learning, it is worth taking dietary supplements that improve memory. If medications are needed, then this is a combination of anticonvulsants and stimulants. It also does not hurt to adhere to a diet with a higher protein content.

Type 5: limbic ADHD.

The primary symptoms of ADHD in these patients are accompanied by chronic melancholy and negativity, combined with a loss of strength, low self-esteem, irritability, social isolation, lack of appetite and sleep. The stimulants here also cause problems with a backlash or symptoms of depression.

Type 6: ADHD Ring of Fire.

In addition to the main symptoms of ADHD, these patients are characterized by moodiness, outbursts of anger, opposition traits, lack of flexibility, hasty thinking, excessive talkativeness and sensitivity to sounds and light. This type can be called the "Ring of Fire", because a characteristic ring is visible on scans of the brain of people with this type of ADHD.

There are also a number of procedures common to all patients with ADHD, in addition to the doctor’s instructions.

1. Take multivitamins.
They help in learning and prevent chronic diseases.

2. Supplement your diet with omega-3 fatty acids.
It has been found that ADHD sufferers have a deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood. Two of them are especially important - eicosapentaenoic acid (EZPK) and docosahexaenoic acid (DZGK). EZPK usually helps people with ADHD. For adults, I recommend taking 2000-4000 mg / day, for children 1000-2000 mg / day.

3. Eliminate caffeine and nicotine.
They prevent sleep and reduce the effectiveness of other treatments.

4. Exercise regularly.
At least 45 minutes 4 times a week. Long, peppy walks are just what you need.

5. Reduce the flow of information.
Not more than half an hour a day, watch TV, play video games, use a cell phone and other electronic devices. It may not be easy, but it will have a noticeable effect.

6. Treat food as a medicine.
Most patients with ADHD get better when they follow a brain-nutritional program. Working with a nutritionist can give serious results.

We can say that ADHD is the scourge of the 21st century. Unfortunately, in our time, an increasing number of people have become susceptible to this syndrome. It is not surprising, considering how much information we perceive every day, happiness is already that we are not crazy.

Give yourself at least occasionally a break, letting the brain take a break from the abundance of new information that we feed it every day, sitting on the Internet or watching TV. I think he will be grateful to you.

As you can see, an improvement in concentration is even possible for those with ADHD.

Problem Description

The development of the disease is more often affected by children aged 2-3 years and older. In adults, the disease can also occur, but such people are less susceptible to its negative effects, more control themselves. Children, on the contrary, experience an acute lack of relationships with other people.

The occurrence in the conscious age of the disease is due to a genetic predisposition. But the manifested symptoms practically do not develop. This is due to the fact that in the foreground an adult has family, work, so emotions are relegated to a secondary plan.

Often the disease manifests itself in boys. In almost every class there is a vivid representative of the symptoms of attention deficit disorder.

When the development of ADHD in children is recorded, then it is characterized by an inability to maintain their own attention on a particular subject or event. The patient is extremely active, trying to be in several places at the same time.

If at a lesson a child makes a mistake in a task, he does not concentrate attention on it, does not listen to explanations of his wrongness, and does not listen to instructive words. In some situations, the child’s behavior transcends all boundaries, he cannot control himself, constantly turns, jumps up in his place. It is these reactions that are very noticeable against the background of other children who are calmly passionate about schoolwork or a joint role-playing game.

In most cases, teachers notice developmental disabilities and strive to label ADHD. To confirm the symptoms, it is necessary to undergo a diagnosis by a psychologist.

The following types of attention deficit in a child are distinguished:

  1. Inattention - only this symptom that determines the disease appears in the patient with ADHD. The likelihood of hyperactivity is almost completely eliminated,
  2. Impulsivity and hyperactivity - the clinical picture is accompanied not only by increased activity compared to other children, but also by temper, imbalance, impulsivity and nervousness,
  3. Mixed view - formed in patients more often than other types. Both signs of the syndrome are included in it. It can develop not only in small patients, but also in adults.

If you omit the human factor and listen to the language of psychology, attention deficit disorder is a dysfunction of the nervous system, characterized by a violation of the normal functioning of the brain. Such problems associated with the most important human organ are the most dangerous and unpredictable.

To prevent the consequences of the development of the disease, it is necessary to monitor the behavior of the child and pay attention to possible problems in the formation of the individual in time. Timely detected symptoms are subject to therapeutic effects. Therefore, panic for no reason and upset when a diagnosis is identified is not worth it.

Causes of Hyperactivity

Medicine cannot precisely determine the causes of hyperactivity and attention disorders in patients of different age categories. Development factors can be various situations that negatively affect the patient, as well as the totality of the processes that occur. All influence negatively affects the human nervous system.

There are certain reasons that stimulate the formation of attention deficit in children:

  1. The development of the child inside the womb, in which there are negative changes in the formation of the central nervous system of the baby, which leads to oxygen starvation or hemorrhage in the brain,
  2. Pregnant woman taking medications in uncontrolled dosages,
  3. The negative influence of addictions during pregnancy on the developing fetus (alcohol addiction, nicotine and drug addiction),
  4. Threatened miscarriage or interruption of blood supply through the umbilical cord to the fetus,
  5. Hard births, complications or, conversely, rapid births that can lead to a baby's head injury or the development of spinal problems,
  6. The conflict on the Rh factor of the blood, which leads to immunological incompatibility of the mother and the developing child,
  7. At the age of one year and earlier, the presence of diseases that provoke an increase in the baby's body temperature to critical levels (up to 39-40 degrees),
  8. Inflammation of the lungs or overflow of a minor illness into bronchial asthma,
  9. Diseases of the kidneys, characterized by a severe degree of course,
  10. The introduction into the body of a small patient, under the age of 1-2 years, preparations of neurotoxic effects,
  11. Congenital heart muscle disease or detection of its insufficiency,
  12. Genetic predisposition.

The heredity that manifested in the child can be viewed directly from the parents, and transmitted from distant relatives. Premature babies have a more than 80% tendency to acquire attention deficit disorder in the early stages of their existence than newborns born at the right time.

The cause of the onset of the disease in the teenage period is acquaintance with the computer and other gadgets. Upon contact with the technique, the child produces cortisol (stress hormone), which leads to the inability of the brain to concentrate.

The manifestation of the process of violations in the development of the child should not be confused with spoilage. The diagnosis of ADHD is treatable, and the bad manners of a young person cannot be eradicated.

Clinical picture

A vivid picture of the course of symptoms is detected in children. In the adult period, the signs of the violation are carefully hidden and hushed up, so it is quite difficult for an outsider to identify the disease at a conscious age. In most cases, teachers send children to the hospital, noting deviations and lack of attention in the kids.

Vivid symptoms begin to manifest in children after reaching 5-12 years of age. The first signs can be replaced even earlier, they are identified in the following:

  1. The baby begins to hold its head early and for a long time, sit down, turn over and crawl,
  2. A newborn sleeps little, is awake more,
  3. Before falling asleep, the child gets tired, but he is not able to fall asleep on his own, there is always a hysteria,
  4. Kids with this diagnosis are very sensitive to foreign objects, people, bright light and loud sound,
  5. Toys or any objects recline before the child has fully examined them.

These signs can both indicate attention deficit in children in the early period of life, and are present in some children with a restless character, under the age of 3 years. Often, problems with activity leave a peculiar imprint on the work of all internal organs.

Children in this situation are often prone to indigestion. The presence of frequent diarrhea is a clear symptom of constant stimulation of the small intestine by the baby’s nervous system. In addition, allergic reactions and various skin rashes are more common in patients with a diagnosed diagnosis than in peers.

With attention deficit in children, the main signs of a violation in the course of the normal formation of the body are insufficient attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. For each specific symptom, its own signs are distinguished.

Lack of attention is manifested in the following:

  1. Concentrating on one subject or situation quickly becomes a burden. The patient loses interest in the details, does not try to distinguish the main thing from the secondary or additional. The kid at this moment begins to do several things at the same time. He tries to paint over all areas of the same color, but cannot finish the job he has begun. When reading, it jumps over a word or even a line. This manifestation means that the child does not know how to make plans. To treat a symptom, you need to teach your baby to plan: "First you need to make this point, and then move on to the next."
  2. The patient, under any pretext, tries not to resort to everyday tasks, lessons or home help. In such a situation, the disease is manifested either by quiet protest, or by an angry scandal or hysteria.
  3. Cycle of attention. In this situation, the preschooler concentrates on a particular subject or lesson for up to 5 minutes, the student is able to study for up to 10 minutes. After that, the same period of time is needed to restore strength and concentration. In patients during the rest period, a peculiarity is revealed: a person simply does not hear the interlocutor, does not react to what is happening, he is busy with his thoughts and deeds.
  4. Attention is shown only if the patient is left alone with the teacher or parent. В этот момент концентрация полностью налаживается, малыш становится послушным и усердным.

Дети с синдромом дефицита внимания отличаются специфической особенностью. Их мозг совершенствуется в момент, когда маленький пациент бегает, разбирает игрушки или играется. Such motor activity makes the brain structures responsible for self-control and thinking work.

Symptoms of impulsivity are expressed in a certain way:

  • The child obeys and is guided only by his own problems and desires. All actions are based on the first impulse received in the brain. In most cases, the consequences of the actions taken are never considered or planned. Situations in which the baby should be completely calm for him does not exist.
  • The patient can not perform actions according to the instructions, especially if it includes several components. When performing a given action, the patient finds a new task for himself, abandoning the previous process.
  • There is no way to wait or endure. The patient requires that he be immediately presented with what he wants. If they do not meet his requirements, then the child begins to scandal, arrange tantrums, abandon previously begun cases or perform aimless actions. This manifestation of increased motor activity is very noticeable when waiting in line,
  • Every few minutes there is a sharp change of mood. Transitions from anguished laughter to hysterical crying are noticeable. If something does not suit the baby in his interlocutor, he throws things, can break or ruin the personal object of another child. All actions performed do not carry specific revenge, are executed under impulse.
  • There is no sense of danger - acts are performed that are dangerous for the life of not only this child, but also of his peers.

All these symptoms are manifested due to the fact that the nervous system of the patient at an early age is quite vulnerable. It is difficult for her to accept and process the entire amount of incoming information. Lack of attention and activity - the ability to defend against excessive stress on the central nervous system.

With hyperactivity, the baby produces a large number of unnecessary movements. In this case, the child does not even notice his own actions. He can jerk his feet, drive his hands, describing circles or other figures. All this is combined into a single distinguishing feature - aimlessness.

Such a child is not inclined to speak quietly, he pronounces everything with a certain speed and in raised tones. Do not bother to wait until the end of the question, shouting and interrupting. His words in most cases are not deliberate; they are offensive to outsiders.

Hyperactivity is also expressed in the facial expressions of the face of such a baby. On his face in a short time slips the whole spectrum of emotions - from anger to happiness.

In some cases, some symptoms are additionally present:

  1. Violations in communication, both with their peers and with adults. The patient tries everywhere in time and everywhere, sometimes it is sharp and even aggressive. These signs in some cases prevent other people from making contact and establish a barrier to friendships.
  2. Difficulties in mastering the school curriculum are revealed, despite the fact that the patient's intellectual development is at a fairly high level,
  3. The lag of the patient in the development of the emotional plan - often manifests whims or tearfulness. An already grown up child does not accept criticism, does not accept an unsuccessful outcome, and often behaves like a child. Medicine has found that with ADHD, developmental delays on an emotional level occur by an average of 30%. So a 10-year-old individual behaves like a 7-year-old preschooler.
  4. The self-esteem of such a person falls. This is due to the fact that during the day the baby hears a significant amount of criticism and remarks addressed to him, he is compared with more obedient and successful peers. This condition reduces its own significance and lowers the child in his eyes, which leads to aggressiveness, imbalance and disobedience, stimulates various disorders.

But along with all the negative aspects of the presence of the syndrome, such children are distinguished by specific positive features. They are mobile, easy to lift, effective. Upon contact with a person, they quickly perceive his condition, trying to help with action or advice. Often such people are selfless, ready to give up all their affairs and rush to help a friend. A person does not have the ability to harbor resentment, revenge, he quickly forgets any troubles and treats others “with all his heart”.

If the symptoms clearly make themselves felt, they should not be neglected and delay the trip to the doctor. Early detection of such a disease helps to quickly get rid of the problem through medication or restraining the child's urges and impulses.

Pathology Diagnostics

If any syndrome is detected, consult a doctor. Medicine recommends contacting any of the specialists: psychiatrists, neurologists, social workers or psychologists. For starters, you can get advice from a family doctor or pediatrician.

But social workers, therapists, and psychologists often do not have the right to prescribe treatment; they establish a diagnosis and refer them to a specialist, such as a neurologist or psychiatrist, for further consultation.

In order to prescribe treatment for ADHD in children, the doctor will conduct the necessary examination. The latter is carried out in several stages, according to a specific algorithm.

Initially, the doctor will ask you to tell the patient about yourself. If a minor patient is undergoing therapy, then a psychological portrait should be drawn. The narrative must necessarily include the child’s behavior and environment.

The second step for the patient will be passing a certain test, revealing the degree of distraction of the baby.

The next step in the algorithm for determining the diagnosis is to carry out the required laboratory examinations. Such a check is considered classic when establishing the correct diagnosis.

It is necessary to undergo a tomography of the brain and an ultrasound scan of the head. The course of the disease in the obtained images is clearly visible. In this situation, the work of the brain is subject to change.

In addition to the main diagnostic methods, you can resort to a full examination:

  1. A genetic study of both parents to establish the reasons that triggered the development of the problem,
  2. A neurological examination is performed, which requires the NESS technique,
  3. Conducting neuropsychological testing for toddlers, preschoolers and school-age teens.

Based on the results of tests and examinations, the doctor makes a diagnosis. As a result of the testing, the presence of hyperactivity and excitability in the patient or its complete absence will be accurately identified. After confirming the diagnosis, effective treatment is prescribed.

Disease treatment

In Russia, attention deficit in children is widespread; its treatment consists of a set of measures and is controlled at all stages. The main impact on the patient is considered to be psychotherapy, as well as behavior correction through pedagogical control and neuropsychological influence.

First of all, the doctor conducts a conversation with the parents and the immediate environment of the patient, explains to them the features of interaction with the patient. Parents are assigned tasks that must be completed:

  1. Parenting must be strict. You should not lisp, feel sorry for the child, everything is allowed to him. Otherwise, excessive custody and love will strengthen the ongoing symptoms of the disease.
  2. Do not require the child to perform actions that he is unable to cope with. The inability to fulfill the tasks leads to an increase in moodiness, nervousness, dissatisfaction with oneself and an even greater drop in the patient’s self-esteem.

For drug treatment, complex therapy is prescribed. Drugs are selected on the basis of identified signs individually. The following drugs are used to treat attention deficit disorder:

  1. For the central nervous system of a vegetative nature, its stimulation prescribes Pemoline, Dextroamphetamine or Methylphenidate,
  2. The use of tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, imipramine, thioridazine, is recommended.
  3. Nootropic tablets should be taken: Semax, Nootropil, Phenibut, Cerebrolysin,
  4. Psychostimulants: Dexmethylphenidate, Dexamphetamine or Levamphetamine.

Additionally, vitamins that stimulate brain activity are prescribed. Therapy is carried out in low doses, so as not to provoke the development of side effects in a minor.

Monitoring the progression of a disease of this type fixes that all drugs act only during administration. After cancellation, their effect is completely stopped, and the symptoms return.

In addition to drug exposure, physiotherapy and therapeutic massage can be used. The procedures of this complex are aimed at eliminating injuries received at the birth of a baby. This has a positive effect on cerebral circulation and pressure inside the skull.

The list of exercises applies:

  1. Therapeutic gymnastics is carried out daily, stimulates the strengthening of muscle tissue of the shoulder girdle and neck,
  2. Collar zone massage - should be performed up to 3 times a year for 10 procedures daily for 10-15 minutes,
  3. Physiotherapy is carried out using infrared radiation, which contributes to the heating of a certain area. It is carried out for 10-15 sessions no more than 2 times a year.

Only the attending physician should prescribe a set of measures for physiological effects. Appealing to an unqualified specialist can cost a patient health.

Hyperactivity can be eliminated without complex drug treatment. You can use folk remedies, drink soothing herbs, such as sage, chamomile or calendula.

In addition, you should be patient and pay more attention to a small person by following these recommendations:

  1. Finding time to talk with a child,
  2. Send the kid to the developmental circles,
  3. Together with the student, one should learn lessons, study more, cultivate his perseverance and attention,
  4. With hyperactivity, it is required to find the application of his restlessness and energy: to give to dancing, running or other outdoor sports,
  5. Do not show aggression, do not scold the patient, demonstrate more calm and restraint,
  6. Support all the initiatives and hobbies of your child. In this situation, it is important not to confuse permissiveness and the adoption of a small person as an independent individual.

If you follow these rules, treating the child will gradually bring results. You should not expect instant progress, but you should not abandon classes. You can use the complex and tablets, physiotherapy and exercise, as well as independently affect a small patient. The main thing is not to lose hope and follow the recommendations of the attending physician.

Attention deficit disorder in children is manifested by various symptoms. If the disease is detected in the initial stages, then it can be quickly cured even in the absence of drugs. In such a situation, the key to victory over the disease is the patience and perseverance of parents in educational moments.